Reported Speech Direct and Indirect Speech

Reported speech or indirect speech is a way of expressing what the other person (speaker) has said directly in the form of statements, questions, or greeting others by changing the format of the talks so that it becomes more clear, natural, and efficient for the listener , Logically, a transmitter of news does not report exactly every word uttered by someone. Direct speech is converted into Reported speech may be a statement (statement), imperative [command (command), invitation (invitation), request (demand)], yes / no question (questions), as well as information question (the question of information).
o Direct Speech is the spoken sentence directly from the speaker. Direct speech is a way to report what people have said or written, in the form of statements, questions, or other speech, quoting the exact words.
Example :

-Erfin Said, “I am so happy”.

-they Said, “We have watched the football game”.

Direct Speech

Direct speech repeats, or quotes, the exact words spoken. When we use direct speech in writing, we place the words spoken between quotation marks (” “) and there is no change in these words. We may be reporting something that’s being said NOW (for example a telephone conversation), or telling someone later about a previous conversation.

Examples
  • She says, “What time will you be home?”
  • She said, “What time will you be home?” and I said, “I don’t know! “
  • “There’s a fly in my soup!” screamed Simone.
  • John said, “There’s an elephant outside the window.”

o Indirect Speech is a phrase that comes from direct sentences that told back in another form.

Indirect Speech

Reported or indirect speech is usually used to talk about the past, so we normally change the tense of the words spoken. We use reporting verbs like ‘say’, ‘tell’, ‘ask’, and we may use the word ‘that’ to introduce the reported words. Inverted commas are not used.

She said, “I saw him.” (direct speech) = She said that she had seen him. (indirect speech)

‘That’ may be omitted:
She told him that she was happy. = She told him she was happy.

Example :

-Erfin Said that he was so happy

-they Said that they had watched the football game.

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH / REPORTED SPEECH
1. Present tense (simple/continuous)
He said, “I study English”.
He said, “I am studying English”. 1. Past tense (simple/continuous)
He said that he studied English
He said that he was studying English
2. Past tense (Simple/continuous)
He said, “I studied English”.
He said, “I was studying English”. 2. Past perfect/perfect continuous
He said that he had studied English.
He said that he had been studying English.
3. Present perfect tense/continuous
He said, “I have studied English”.
He said, “I have been studying English”. 3. Past perfect tense/continuous
He said that he had studied English.
He said that he had been studying English.
4. Future tense (simple/continuous)
He said, “I will study English”.
He said, “I will be studying English”. 4. Past future tense (simple/continuous)
He said that he would study English
He said that he would have been studying English.
5. Future perfect tense/continuous
He said, “I will have studied English”.
He said, “I will have been studying English”. 5. Past future perfect/continuous
He said that he would have studied English
He said that he would have been studying English.
6. Past future tense (simple/continuous)
He said, “I would study English”.
He said, “I would be studying English”. 6. Past perfect future (simple/continuous)
He said that he would have studied English
He said that he would have been studying English.

o Direct and Indirect speech can be divided into 3 parts:
• Command
Command consists of 2 types, Positive and Negative Command Command
Positive Command
In this pattern introductory phrase is expressed with verbs: tell, ask, advise, etc. To be followed by the infinitive.
Ecample
Direct : The teacher said to me : “open your book”
Indirect : The teacher asked me to open my book
Negative Command
Introductory sentence: He asked me, He told me not to + reporter words, He ordered me
Direct : Father asked me : “ Don’t go out”
Indirect : Father asked me no to go out.
• Statement
In indirect statement, “that” is used as a liaison between the introductory sentences and words that are reported (reported speech) Introductory sentence in the statement: He said + that + Reported words.
Example
Direct : She says: “I go to school everyday.”
Indirect : She says that he goes to school everyday.
• Question
When a direct question in the form of YES and NO answer then IF or Whether as a support between the introductory phrase and Reported words.
Introductory sentence for the pattern is: He asked me IF / Whether.

When questions using words Questions such as: where, when, what, why, who, Whose, how, etc. then these words serve as a link between the introductory phrase and Reported words, the pattern is as follows: He asked me + Question Reported words Words.
Direct : we asked the man “Do you like coffe?”
Indirect : we asked the man if/whether he liked coffe.
Direct : seisy asked Helen : “have you seen that film?”
Indirect : seisy asked Helen if/whether she had seen that film.

The Changing Part

– To be & Auxiliary Verbs

Direct                           –                       Indirect

Am/is/are                      –                       was/were

Shall/will                       –                       should/would

Can                              –                       could

May                             –                       might

Must                            –                       might

Have/has to                  –                       had to

Ought to                       –                       had to

– Tenses

Direct                                      –                       Indirect

Simple present                         –                       simple past

Present perfect                        –                        past perfect

Present continuous                   –                       past continous

Present perfect continous         –                       past perfect continous

Simple future                           –                       past future
Time Reference

time
Exercise

1. Did they eat out together yesterday?
A. He asked me if they had eaten out together yesterday.
B. He asked me if they had eaten out together the day before.
C. He asked me if they has eaten out together the day before.

2. Don’t turn off the light now.
A. He told me don’t turn off the light at that time.
B. He told me not to turn off the light at that time.
C. He told me didn’t turn off the light at that time.

3. What’s your passion?
A. She wanted to know what is my passion.
B. She wanted to know what was my passion.
C. She wanted to know what my passion was.

4. I begin to understand the concept of biodiversity.
A. He asked me that he began to understand the concept of Biodiversity.
B. He wanted to know if he began to understand the concept of Biodiversity.
C. He said that he began to understand the concept of Biodiversity.

5. Your friend has just left.
A. He told me that your friend had just left.
B. He told me that my friend has just left.
C. He told me that my friend had just left.

6. Can I borrow your pencil for a moment?
A. She asked me if she can borrow my pencil for a moment.
B. She asked me whether she can borrow my pencil for a moment.
C. She asked me whether she could borrow my pencil for a moment.

7. Why are you staring at my feet?
A. He asked her why she is staring at his feet.
B. He asked her why she was staring at his feet.
C. He asked her why was she staring at his feet.

8. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
A. He said that the sun rose in the east and set in the west.
B. He said that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
C. He asked if the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

9. I’m going to meet my penpal for the first time tomorrow.
A. She said she was going to meet her penpal for the first time the next day.
B. She said she was going to meet my penpal for the first time tomorrow.
C. She said she was going to meet her penpal for the first time tomorrow.

10. We have been here for a week.
A. They said they had been there for a week.
B. They said they had been here for a week.
C. They said we had been there for a week.

Retrieve on :

http://bayuaprian35.blogspot.co.id/2013/05/direct-and-indirect-speech.html
https://inggrishbahasa.wordpress.com/lesson-english/english-grammar/179-2/
http://grammarworm.blogspot.co.id/
http://www.e-sbmptn.com/2014/12/download-soal-reported-speech-direct.html
http://www.carabelajarbahasainggrisoke.com/2014/08/pengertian-dan-contoh-indirect-speech-atau-reported-speech.htmlhttp://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/direct-and-indirect-speech/

 

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