conditional sentences : if-clause

Conditional sentences: if-clauses type I, II, III, Zero Conditional, Mixed Type Conditional.

Conditional sentences

Conditional sentences are sometimes confusing for learners of English as a second language. Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are used to express that the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled. There are three types of Conditional Sentences. Conditional tenses are used to speculate about what could happen, what might have happened, and what we wish would happen. In English, most sentences using the conditional contain the word if. Many conditional forms in English are used in sentences that include verbs in one of the past tenses. This usage is referred to as “the unreal past” because we use a past tense but we are not actually referring to something that happened in the past.

Watch out:

  1. Which type of conditional sentences is it?
  2. Where is the if-clause (e.g. at the beginning or at the end of the conditional sentence)?

 

There are three types of conditional sentences.

type condition
I condition possible to fulfill
II It is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled.
III condition not possible to fulfill (too late)
  1. Form
type if-clause main clause
I Simple Present will-future or (Modal + infinitive)
II Simple Past would + infinitive *
III Past Perfect would + have + past participle *
  1. Examples (if-clause at the beginning)
type if clause main clause
I If I study, I will pass the exam.
II If I studied, I would pass the exam.
III If I had studied, I would have passed the exam.
  1. Examples (if-clause at the end)
type main clause if-clause
I I will pass the exam if I study.
II I would pass the exam if I studied.
III I would have passed the exam if I had studied.
  1. Examples (affirmative and negative sentences)
type   Examples
    long forms short/contracted forms
I + If I study, I will pass the exam. If I study, I’ll pass the exam.
If I study, I will not fail the exam.
If I do not study, I will fail the exam.
If I study, I won’t fail the exam.
If I don’t study, I’ll fail the exam.
II  

+

 

If I studied, I would pass the exam.

 

If I studied, I’d pass the exam.

If I studied, I would not fail the exam.
If I did not study, I would fail the exam.
If I studied, I wouldn’t fail the exam.
If I didn’t study, I’d fail the exam.
III  

 

+

 

 

If I had studied, I would have passed the exam.

 

 

If I’d studied, I’d have passed the exam.

If I had studied, I would not have failed the exam.
If I had not studied, I would have failed the exam.
If I’d studied, I wouldn’t have failed the exam.
If I hadn’t studied, I’d have failed the exam.

 

 

There is another types of Conditional Sentences, here they are :

Conditional sentence type Usage If clause verb tense Main clause verb tense
Zero General truths Simple present Simple present
Type 1 A possible condition and its probable result Simple present Simple future
Type 2 A hypothetical condition and its probable result Simple past Present conditional or Present continuous conditional
Type 3 An unreal past condition and its probable result in the past Past perfect Perfect conditional
Mixed type An unreal past condition and its probable result in the present Past perfect Present contditional
  • Type Zero Conditional

The zero conditional is used for when the time being referred to is now or always and the situation is real and possible. The zero conditional is often used to refer to general truths. The tense in both parts of the sentence is the simple present. In zero conditional sentences, the word “if” can usually be replaced by the word “when” without changing the meaning.

If clause Main clause
If + simple present simple present
If this thing happens that thing happens.
If you heat ice it melts.
If it rains the grass gets wet.

o   Zero Conditional

Form

In zero conditional sentences, the tense in both parts of the sentence is the simple present.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple present simple present
If this thing happens that thing happens.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical. In zero conditional sentences, you can replace “if” with “when”, because both express general truths. The meaning will be unchanged.

Examples
  • If you heat ice, it melts.
  • Ice melts if you heat it.
  • When you heat ice, it melts.
  • Ice melts when you heat it.
  • If it rains, the grass gets wet.
  • The grass gets wet if it rains.
  • When it rains, the grass gets wet.
  • The grass gets wet when it rains.

Function

The zero conditional is used to make statements about the real world, and often refers to general truths, such as scientific facts. In these sentences, the time is now or always and the situation is real and possible.

Examples
  • If you freeze water, it becomes a solid.
  • Plants die if they don’t get enough water.
  • If my husband has a cold, I usually catch it.
  • If public transport is efficient, people stop using their cars.
  • If you mix red and blue, you get purple.

The zero conditional is also often used to give instructions, using the imperative in the main clause.

Examples
  • If Bill phones, tell him to meet me at the cinema.
  • Ask Pete if you’re not sure what to do.
  • If you want to come, call me before 5:00.
  • Meet me here if we get separated.

ü  Type 1 Conditional

The type 1 conditional is used to refer to the present or future where the situation is real. The type 1 conditional refers to a possible condition and its probable result. In these sentences the if clause is in the simple present, and the main clause is in the simple future.

If clause Main clause
If + simple present simple future
If this thing happens that thing will happen.
If you don’t hurry you will miss the train.
If it rains today you will get wet.

o   Type 1 Conditional

Form

In a Type 1 conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the simple present, and the tense in the main clause is the simple future.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple present simple future
If this thing happens that thing will happen.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

Examples
  • If it rains, you will get wet.
  • You will get wet if it rains.
  • If Sally is late again I will be mad.
  • I will be mad if Sally is late again.
  • If you don’t hurry, you will miss the bus.
  • You will miss the bus if you don’t hurry.

Function

The type 1 conditional refers to a possible condition and its probable result. These sentences are based on facts, and they are used to make statements about the real world, and about particular situations. We often use such sentences to give warnings. In type 1 conditional sentences, the time is the present or future and the situation is real.

Examples
  • If I have time, I’ll finish that letter.
  • What will you do if you miss the plane?
  • Nobody will notice if you make a mistake.
  • If you drop that glass, it will break.
  • If you don’t drop the gun, I’ll shoot!
  • If you don’t leave, I’ll call the police.

In type 1 conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of the future tense to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.

Examples
  • If you drop that glass, it might break.
  • I may finish that letter if I have time.
  • If he calls you, you should go.
  • If you buy my school supplies for me, I will be able to go to the park.

ü  Type 2 Conditional

The type 2 conditional is used to refer to a time that is now or any time, and a situation that is unreal. These sentences are not based on fact. The type 2 conditional is used to refer to a hypothetical condition and its probable result. In type 2 conditional sentences, the if clause uses the simple past, and the main clause uses the present conditional.

If clause Main clause
If + simple past present conditional or present continuous conditional
If this thing happened that thing would happen. (but I’m not sure this thing will happen) OR
that thing would be happening.
If you went to bed earlier you would not be so tired.
If it rained you would get wet.
If I spoke Italian I would be working in Italy.

o   Type 2 Conditional

Form

In a Type 2 conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional or the present continuous conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple past present conditional or present continuous conditional
If this thing happened that thing would happen.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

Examples
  • If it rained, you would get wet.
  • You would get wet if it rained.
  • If you went to bed earlier you wouldn’t be so tired.
  • You wouldn’t be so tired if you went to bed earlier.
  • If she fell, she would hurt herself.
  • She would hurt herself if she fell.

Function

The type 2 conditional refers to an unlikely or hypothetical condition and its probable result. These sentences are not based on the actual situation. In type 2 conditional sentences, the time is now or any time and the situation is hypothetical.

Examples
  • If the weather wasn’t so bad, we would go to the park. (But the weather is bad so we can’t go.)
  • If I was the Queen of England, I would give everyone a chicken. (But I am not the Queen.)
  • If you really loved me, you would buy me a diamond ring.
  • If I knew where she lived, I would go and see her.

It is correct, and very common, to say “if I were” instead of “if I was” (subjunctive mood).

Examples
  • If I were taller, I would buy this dress.
  • If I were 20, I would travel the world.
  • If I were you, I would give up smoking.
  • If I were a plant, I would love the rain.

In type 2 conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of “would” to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.

Examples
  • We might buy a larger house if we had more money
  • He could go to the concert if you gave him your ticket.
  • If he called me, I couldn’t hear.

The present conditional tense

The present conditional of any verb is composed of two elements:
would + the infinitive of the main verb, without “to”

Subject + would + infinitive
He would go
They would stay
Affirmative Negative Interrogative Interrogative Negative
I would go I wouldn’t go Would I go? Wouldn’t I go?
You would go You wouldn’t go Would you go? Wouldn’t you go?
He would go He wouldn’t go Would he go? Wouldn’t he go?
She would go She wouldn’t go Would she go? Wouldn’t she go?
We would go We wouldn’t go Would we go? Wouldn’t we go?
They would go They wouldn’t go Would they go? Wouldn’t they go?

o   Present Continuous Conditional

Form

In type 2 conditional sentences, the continuous form of the present conditional may be used.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple past present continuous conditional
If this thing happened that thing would be happening.

Function

This form is common in type 2 conditional sentences. It expresses an unfinished or continuing action or situation, which is the probable result of an unreal condition.

Examples
  • I would be working in Italy if I spoke Italian. (But I don’t speak Italian, so I am not working in Italy)
  • She wouldn’t be living with Jack if she lived with her parents. (But she is living with Jack and not with her parents).
  • You wouldn’t be smiling if you knew the truth. (But you are smiling because you don’t know the truth.)

The present continuous conditional tense

The present continuous conditional tense of any verb is composed of three elements:
would + be + present participle
The present participle is formed by taking the base form of the verb and adding the -ing ending.

Subject + would + be + present participle
He would be staying
They would be going
To Live: Present Continuous Conditional
Affirmative Negative Interrogative Interrogative Negative
I would be living I wouldn’t be living Would I be living? Wouldn’t I be living?
You would be living You wouldn’t be living Would you be living? Wouldn’t you be living?
He would be living He wouldn’t be living Would he be living? Wouldn’t he be living?
She would be living She wouldn’t be living Would she be living? Wouldn’t she be living?
We would be living We wouldn’t be living Would we be living? Wouldn’t we be living?
They would be living They wouldn’t be living Would they be living? Wouldn’t they be living?

 

ü  Type 3 Conditional

The type 3 conditional is used to refer to a time that is in the past, and a situation that is contrary to reality. The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is expressed. The type 3 conditional is used to refer to an unreal past condition and its probable past result. In type 3 conditional sentences, the if clause uses the past perfect, and the main clause uses the perfect conditional.

If clause Main clause
If + past perfect perfect conditional or perfect continuous conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would have happened. (but neither of those things really happened) OR
that thing would have been happening.
If you had studied harder you would have passed the exam.
If it had rained you would have gotten wet.
If I had accepted that promotion I would have been working in Milan.

o   Type 3 Conditional

Form

In a Type 3 conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional or the perfect continuous conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + past perfect perfect conditional or perfect continuous conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would have happened.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

Examples
  • If it had rained, you would have gotten wet.
  • You would have gotten wet if it had rained.
  • You would have passed your exam if you had worked harder.
  • If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam.
  • I would have believed you if you hadn’t lied to me before.
  • If you hadn’t lied to me before, I would have believed you.

Function

The type 3 conditional refers to an impossible condition in the past and its probable result in the past. These sentences are truly hypothetical and unreal, because it is now too late for the condition or its result to exist. There is always some implication of regret with type 3 conditional sentences. The reality is the opposite of, or contrary to, what the sentence expresses. In type 3 conditional sentences, the time is the past and the situation is hypothetical.

Examples
  • If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam. (But I didn’t work hard, and I didn’t pass the exam.)
  • If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake. (But I didn’t know and I didn’t bake a cake.)
  • I would have been happy if you had called me on my birthday. (But you didn’t call me and I am not happy.)

In type 3 conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of “would” to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.

Examples
  • If I had worked harder I might have passed the exam.
  • You could have been on time if you had caught the bus.
  • If he called you, you could go.
  • If you bought my school supplies for me, I might be able to go to the park.
Contractions

Both would and had can be contracted to ‘d, which can be confusing if you are not confident with type 3 conditional sentences. Remember 2 rules:
1. would never appears in the if-clause so if ‘d appears in the if clause, it must be abbreviating had.
2. had never appears before have so if ‘d appears on a pronoun just before have, it must be abbreviating would.

Examples
  • If I’d known you were in hospital, I’d have visited you.
  • If I had known you were in hospital, I would have visited you.
  • I’d have bought you a present if I’d known it was your birthday.
  • I would have bought you a present if I had known it was your birthday.
  • If you’d given me your e-mail, I’d have written to you.
  • If you had given me your e-mail, I would have written to you.

The perfect conditional tense

The perfect conditional of any verb is composed of three elements:
would + have + past participle
Have followed by the past participle is used in other constructions as well. it is called the “perfect infinitive”.

Subject + would + have + past participle
He would have gone
They would have stayed
Affirmative Negative Interrogative Interrogative Negative
I would have gone I wouldn’t have gone Would I have gone? Wouldn’t I have gone?
You would have gone You wouldn’t have gone Would you have gone? Wouldn’t you have gone?
He would have gone He wouldn’t have gone Would he have gone? Wouldn’t he have gone?
She would have gone She wouldn’t have gone Would she have gone? Wouldn’t she have gone?
We would have gone We wouldn’t have gone Would we have gone? Wouldn’t we have gone?
They would have gone They wouldn’t have gone Would they have gone? Wouldn’t they have gone?

o   Perfect Continuous Conditional

Form

In type 3 conditional sentences, the perfect form of the present conditional may be used.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + past perfect perfect continuous conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would have been happening.

Function

The perfect continuous conditional can be used in type 3 conditional sentences. It refers to the unfulfilled result of the action in the if-clause, and expresses this result as an unfinished or continuous action.

Examples
  • If the weather had been better (but it wasn’t), I’d have been sitting in the garden when he arrived (but I wasn’t).
  • If she hadn’t got a job in London (but she did), she would have been working in Paris (but she wasn’t).
  • If I had had a ball I would have been playing football.
  • If I had known it was dangerous I wouldn’t have been climbing that cliff.

o    The perfect continuous conditional tense

The perfect continuous conditional tense of any verb is composed of four elements:
would + have + been + present participle
The present participle is formed by taking the base form of the verb and adding the -ing ending.

Subject + would + have + been + present participle
He would have been staying
They would have been going
To Work: Perfect Continuous Conditional
Affirmative Negative Interrogative Interrogative Negative
I would have been living I wouldn’t have been living Would I have been living? Wouldn’t I have been living?
You would have been living You wouldn’t have been living Would you have been living? Wouldn’t you have been living?
He would have been living He wouldn’t have been living Would he have been living? Wouldn’t he have been living?
She would have been living She wouldn’t have been living Would she have been living? Wouldn’t she have been living?
We would have been living We wouldn’t have been living Would we have been living? Wouldn’t we have been living?
They would have been living They wouldn’t have been living Would they have been living? Wouldn’t they have been living?

o    

ü  Mixed Type Conditional

The mixed type conditional is used to refer to a time that is in the past, and a situation that is ongoing into the present. The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is expressed. The mixed type conditional is used to refer to an unreal past condition and its probable result in the present. In mixed type conditional sentences, the if clause uses the past perfect, and the main clause uses the present conditional.

If clause Main clause
If + past perfect or simple past present conditional or perfect conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would happen. (but this thing didn’t happen so that thing isn’t happening)
If I had worked harder at school I would have a better job now.
If we had looked at the map we wouldn’t be lost.
If you weren’t afraid of spiders you would have picked it up and put it outside.

o   Mixed Conditional

It is possible for the two parts of a conditional sentence to refer to different times, and the resulting sentence is a “mixed conditional” sentence. There are two types of mixed conditional sentence.

Present result of a past condition

Form

In this type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + past perfect present conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would happen.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

Examples
  • If I had worked harder at school, I would have a better job now.
  • I would have a better job now if I had worked harder at school.
  • If we had looked at the map we wouldn’t be lost.
  • We wouldn’t be lost if we had looked at the map.
  • If you had caught that plane you would be dead now.
  • You would be dead now if you had caught that plane.
Function

This type of mixed conditional refers to an unreal past condition and its probable result in the present. These sentences express a situation which is contrary to reality both in the past and in the present. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time is the past in the “if” clause and in the present in the main clause.

Examples
  • If I had studied I would have my driving license. (but I didn’t study and now I don’t have my license)
  • I would be a millionaire now if I had taken that job. (but I didn’t take the job and I’m not a millionaire)
  • If you had spent all your money, you wouldn’t buy this jacket. (but you didn’t spend all your money and now you can buy this jacket)

In these mixed conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of would to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.

Examples
  • If you had crashed the car, you might be in trouble.
  • I could be a millionaire now if I had invested in ABC Plumbing.
  • If I had learned to ski, I might be on the slopes right now.

o   Past result of present or continuing condition

Form

In this second type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple past perfect conditional
If this thing happened that thing would have happened.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

Examples
  • If I wasn’t afraid of spiders, I would have picked it up.
  • I would have picked it up if I wasn’t afraid of spiders.
  • If we didn’t trust him we would have sacked him months ago.
  • We would have sacked him months ago if we didn’t trust him.
  • If I wasn’t in the middle of another meeting, I would have been happy to help you.
  • I would have been happy to help you if I wasn’t in the middle of another meeting.
Function

These mixed conditional sentences refer to an unreal present situation and its probable (but unreal) pas result. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time in the if clause is now or always and the time in the main clause is before now. For example, “If I wasn’t afraid of spiders” is contrary to present reality. I am afraid of spiders. “I would have picked it up” is contrary to past reality. I didn’t pick it up.

Examples
  • If she wasn’t afraid of flying she wouldn’t have travelled by boat.
  • I’d have been able to translate the letter if my Italian was better.
  • If I was a good cook, I’d have invited them to lunch.
  • If the elephant wasn’t in love with the mouse, she’d have trodden on him by now.

* We can substitute could or might for would (should, may or must are sometimes possible, too).

  • I would pass the exam.
  • I could pass the exam.
  • I might pass the exam.
  • I may pass the exam.
  • I should pass the exam.
  • I must pass the exam.

Exceptions

Sometimes Conditional Sentences Type I, II and III can also be used with other tenses. So far you have only learned the basic rules for Conditional Sentences. It depends on the context, however, which tense to use. So sometimes it’s possible for example that in an IF Clause Type I another tense than Simple Present is used, e.g. Present Progressive or Present Perfect.

 

 

 

 

 

Conditional Sentences Type I (likely)

Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
future action Simple Present If the book is interesting, … Future I …I will buy it.
Imperative …buy it.
Modal Auxiliary …you can buy it.
action going on now Present Progressive If he is snoring, … Future I …I will wake him up.
Imperative …wake him up.
Modal Auxiliary …you can wake him up.
finished action Present Perfect If he has moved into his new flat, … Future I …we will visit him.
Imperative …visit him.
Modal Auxiliary …we can visit him.
improbable action should + Infinitive If she should win this race, … Future I …I will congratulate her.
Imperative …congratulate her.
Modal Auxiliary …we can congratulate her.
present facts Simple Present If he gets what he wants, … Simple Present …he is very nice.

Conditional Sentences Type II (unlikely)

Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
present / future event Simple Past If I had a lot of money, … Conditional I …I would travel around the world.
consequence in the past Simple Past If I knew him, … Conditional II …I would have said hello.
Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
present Past Perfect If I had known it, … Conditional I …I would not be here now.
past Past Perfect If he had learned for the test, … Conditional II …he would not have failed it.

 

 

Conditional Sentences Type II (impossible)

 

 

SCROLL DOWN FOR THE EXERCISES

Top of Form

  1. If it doesn’t rain, we (can / go) swimming tomorrow.
  2. If you train hard, you (might / win) first prize.
  3. If we go to Canada next year, we (can / improve) our English.
  4. I (may / go) to the disco in the evening if I do the washing-up now.
  5. If we go on holiday next week, I (not / can / play) tennis with you.
  6. If you see Gareth tomorrow, you (should / tell) him that you love him.
  7. If my parents go shopping in the afternoon, I (must / look) after my little sister.
  8. He (must / be) a good drummer if he plays in a band.
  9. If you are listening to the radio after 10 pm, you (should / turn) the volume down.
  10. If you like that shirt, you (can / have) it.
  11. I am trying to reach Sue on the phone now, but I’m afraid she is not there because …
    If she (be) at the office, she (answer) the phone.
  12. A couple of minutes ago, I tried to reach Sue on the phone, but I’m afraid she is not there because …
    If she (be) at the office, she (answer) the phone.
  13. I want to ring a friend now, but I don’t know his phone number.
    If I (know) his phone number, I (ring) him.
  14. A week ago, I wanted to ring a friend, but I don’t know his phone number.
    If I (know) his phone number, I (ring) him.
  15. A friend tells me what she is planning to do. I don’t think what she is planning is a good idea.
    If I (be) you, I (do / not) this.
  16. A friend tells me what she did. I don’t think what she did was a good idea.
    If I (be) you, I (do / not) this.
  17. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I’m seeing her in town tonight.
    If Sarah (be) in Italy, I (see / not) her in town tonight.
  18. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I saw her in town last night.
    If Sarah (be) in Italy, I (see / not) her in town last night.
  19. My brother feels like he is getting the flu. I tell him …
    You (get / not) the flu if you (eat) more fruit.
  20. A few weeks ago, my brother had the flu. I tell him …
    You (get / not) the flu if you (eat) more fruit.

 

AND SCROLL DOWN FOR THE ANSWER 😀

  1. If it doesn’t rain, we can go swimming tomorrow.
  2. If you train hard, you might win first prize.
  3. If we go to Canada next year, we can improve our English.
  4. I may go to the disco in the evening if I do the washing-up now.
  5. If we go on holiday next week, I cannot play tennis with you.
  6. If you see Gareth tomorrow, you should tell him that you love him.
  7. If my parents go shopping in the afternoon, I must look after my little sister.
  8. He must be a good drummer if he plays in a band.
  9. If you are listening to the radio after 10 pm, you should turn the volume down.
  10. If you like that shirt, you can have it.
  11. I am trying to reach Sue on the phone now, but I’m afraid she is not there because …
    If she were at the office, she would answer the phone.
  12. A couple of minutes ago, I tried to reach Sue on the phone, but I’m afraid she is not there because …
    If she were at the office, she would have answered the phone.
  13. I want to ring a friend now, but I don’t know his phone number.
    If I knew his phone number, I would ring him.
  14. A week ago, I wanted to ring a friend, but I don’t know his phone number.
    If I knew his phone number, I would have rung him.
  15. A friend tells me what she is planning to do. I don’t think what she is planning is a good idea.
    If I were you, I would not do this.
  16. A friend tells me what she did. I don’t think what she did was a good idea.
    If I were you, I would not have done this.
  17. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I’m seeing her in town tonight.
    If Sarah were in Italy, I would not see her in town tonight.
  18. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I saw her in town last night.
    If Sarah were in Italy, I would not have seen her in town last night.
  19. My brother feels like he is getting the flu. I tell him …
    You would not get the flu if you ate more fruit.
  20. A few weeks ago, my brother had the flu. I tell him …
    You would not have got the flu if you ate more fruit.

Retrieve on Sunday, November 9, 2015

http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/if.htm

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/exceptions

http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/conditional/

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences

http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/type-3-conditional/

http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/perfect-continuous-conditional/

http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/type-1-conditional/

http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/type-2-conditional/

http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/present-continuous-conditional/

http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/mixed-conditional/

http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/zero-conditional/

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/type-1/exercises

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/type-2/exercises

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/type-3/exercises

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/exercises?04

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/exceptions/exercises

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/exceptions/exercises?04

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/exceptions/exercises?05

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