Softskill Group 2

Chrisluana Voty E P 11612607

Dara Puspitawati 11612715

Febby Rachmadania 12612845

M. Ali Rahman 14612867

Vinny Aulia 17612600

Definition of Translation

As the other sciences, found many definition of translation. Various definition reflected expert’s view which made defintion about the truth and process of translation.

The first definition according to Catford:

(Translation is) the replacement of textual material in one language by equivalent textual material in another language (Catford, 1965:20)

You might be wonder because there is not concept about meaning in definition. Meanwhile, the point of translation could not be separate from meaning or idea problem.

Savory (1968) said the truth about translation that reach the concept:

Translation is made possible by an equivalent of thought that lies behind its different verbal expressions.

Savory did not explain more about the operational matters or related process.

Process of translation according to Nida and Taber (1969). They stated:

Translating consists of reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.

Based on Translation book: Application and Research, Brislin (1976) gives broad limitation term of translation. To her, translation is a transferring of ideas from one language to another. Both of language could be similar, like Sunda language and Java language, could be different, like English language and Bahasa, or even same language but used in different time, like Java language in Majapahit era and Java language in modern era. Unfortunately, in this definition does not imply a good process of translation and a good criteria of translation.

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kota MAGELANG dan KEINDAHANNYA

LETAK KOTA MAGELANG

Kota ini terletak di tengah kabupaten Magelang. Karena memang dulunya Kota Magelang adalah ibukota dari Kabupaten Magelang sebelum mendapat kebijakan untuk mengurus rumah tangga sendiri sebagai sebuah kota baru. Kota Magelang memiliki posisi yang strategis, karena berada di jalur utama Semarang-Yogyakarta. Kota Magelang berada di 15 km sebelah Utara Kota Mungkid, 75 km sebelah selatan Semarang, dan 43 km sebelah utara Yogyakarta

1. Ketep Pass

Ketep Pass
Ketep Pass

Ketep Pass terletak di Desa Ketep, Kecamatan Sawangan. Ketep Pass ini berada di jalur SSB (Solo Selo Borobudur), Ketep Pass merupakan salah satu tempat wisata di Magelang yang banyak disukai wisatawan. Objek wisata di Magelang ini menawarkan Anda pemandangan gunung dan bukit yang sangat indah dan tidak kalah pula adanya hamparan pertanian yang menarik. Ketep Pass mempunyai sejumlah fasilitas wisata menarik, di antaranya seperti Bioskop Mini, Museum Vulkanologi, Teropong, Pelataran Panca Arga dan Gardu Pandang

2. Taman Kyai Langgeng

Taman Kyai Langgeng
Taman Kyai Langgeng

Taman yang berluaskan 28 hektar ini mempunyai aneka koleksi tanaman langka, patung-patung dinosaurus dalam ukuran yang asli, prototipe pesawat terbang, hingga dengan berbagai fasilitas permainan. Suasana udaranya yang segar dengan pepohonan hijau menjadikan taman ini banyak disukai sebagai salah satu destinasi wisata keluarga. Letaknya yang sekitar 1 km dari arah selatan pusat kota Magelang, Taman Kyai Langgeng juga merupakan tempat bermain anak di Magelang dengan permainan kolam renang, jetcoster dan lain-lainnya. Obyek wisata ini terletak sekitar 19 Kilometer dari Candi Borobudur, 35 kilometer dari Kopeng atau 50 Kilometer dari Candi Pramabanan dan 42 kilometer dari Monumen Jogja Kembali. Di Taman Kyai Langgeng, khususnya pada hari libur anda akan disuguhi dengan berbagai atraksi kesenian daerah maupun musik, selain arena permainan untuk anak-anak dan keluarga. Lebih jauh, kunjungi http://www.taman-kyailanggeng.com, di sebelah Taman ini terdapat fasilitas Arung Jeram Progo Asri, dikhususkan bagi mereka yang menyukai petualangan dengan menelusuri Sungai Progo. Sepanjang 9 kilometer kita akan menikmati suasana pedesaan di tepian Sungai Progo sekaligus menikmati jeram-jeramnya. Petualangan ini bisa dinikmati setiap hari dari pukul 08.00 sampai 14.00 tentu saja dengan melihat kondisi perairan di Sungai Progo. Anda akan didampingi oleh pemandu yang telah berpengalaman serta memperoleh fasilitas lain seperti makan, asuransi dan tranportasi kembali ke pos pemberangkatan.
3. Alun-Alun Kota Magelang

Alun-Alun Kota Magelang
Alun-Alun Kota Magelang

Dari alun-alun ini orang dapat menjangkau Pecinan atau Jl. Pemuda. Kawasan Pecinan merupakan salah satu kawasan pusat perdagangan di Kota Magelang, yang sudah ada sejak zaman pemerintah Kolonial Belanda. Ini dia landmark yang menjadi kebanggaan masyarakat di Magelang. Adanya patung Pangeran Diponegoro yang sedang menaiki kuda dengan gagah perkasa seolah-olah menyambut kedatangan Anda untuk menuju ke tempat ini. Alun-Alun Kota Magelang adalah sebuah kawasan yang populer. Alun-Alun Kota Magelang menjadi tempat yang tepat bagi Anda yang ingin menikmati kuliner khas Magelang hingga mencoba wisata belanja di sekitar kawasan alun-alun.

4. Air Terjun Kedung Kayang

Air Terjun Kedung Kayang
Air Terjun Kedung Kayang

Jika dari Gardu Pandang Ketep Pass, Air Terjun Kedung Kayang ini hanya berjarak sekitar 3 km. Air terjun ini ketinggiannya mencapai 40 meter dan terletak di antara gunung Merapi dan gunung Merbabu. Air Terjun Kedung Kayang cukup dingin dan memiliki aliran yang deras. Harga tiket masuk Air Terjun Kedung Kayang adalah Rp 2.500 per orang.

5. Arung Jeram di Sungai Progo Atas

Arung Jeram di Sungai Progo Atas
Arung Jeram di Sungai Progo Atas

Disinilah Anda bisa melakukan kegiatan arung jeram yang sangat menarik di Magelang. Sungai Progo Atas ini terletak di Perumahan Griya Tok Songo, Kota Magelang. Aliran Sungai Progo atas sepanjang 12 km, durasi waktu melakukan arung jeram di sungai ini sekitar 2,5 jam hingga 3 jam.

Arung jeram sungai Progo terbagi menjadi beberapa rute, yaitu arung jeram sungai Progo bagian Hulu, arung jeram sungai Progo bagian Atas dan arung jeram Sungai Progo bagian Bawah. Sungai Progo Hulu dan sungai Progo Atas letaknya di wilayah Magelang, sedangkan Sungai Progo Bawah ada di kabupaten Kulon Progo, Jogjakarta. Bagi Anda yang suka akan tantangan air, Anda bisa mencoba Sungai Progo ini dan menaklukkannya.

6. Air Terjun Sekar Langit

Air Terjun Sekar Langit
Air Terjun Sekar Langit

Bagi Anda yang suka dengan wisata alam, air terjun sekar langit ini wajib Anda kunjungi. Suasana pegunungan yang sejuk, air yang jernih serta pemandangan alam yang menawan  menjadi daya tarik tersendiri di Air Terjun Sekar Langit. Ketinggian Air Terjun Sekar Langit sekitar 30 meter, tentunya ukuran ini cukup tinggi untuk sebuah air terjun. Harga tiket masuk ke Air Terjun Sekar Langit terbilang sangat murah. Untuk pemakai kendaraan roda dua akan dikenakan biaya sebesar Rp 2000, sedangkan untuk pengguna kendaraan roda empat dikenakan biaya Rp 3000.

7. Bukit Tidar

Bukit Tidar
Bukit Tidar

Bukit Tidar merupakan Bukit yang terletak di Bagian Magelang Selatan dan terletak di dalam kompleks Akademi Militer, dan terkenal sebagai Paku pulau jawa, di sini juga terdapat beberapa makam dan petilasan leluhur masyarakat Magelang; salah satunya adalah petilasan penyebar agama Islam di Jawa Tengah yakni petilasan Syekh Subakir dari Persia. Bukit Tidar memang tidak terlalu tinggi, tapi pohon-pohonan di sini berfungsi sebagai paru-paru kota sehingga udara Kota Magelang selalu segar,dari sini juga anda dapat menikmati pemandangan Kota Magelang dari atas Tugu Akademi Militer. Letak Bukit Tidar tepatnya di Kelurahan Magersari, kecamatan Magelang Selatan. Untuk mengunjunginya anda bisa melewati dua jalan,yaitu lewat Pasar Burung dan lewat samping Akademi Militer dengan naik angkot jalur 6, 8, 10, dari Terminal Soekarno-Hatta turun di Perempatan Pasar Burung, untuk melalui jalan samping Akademi Militer anda dapat melanjutkan perjalanan dengan angkot jalur 2 setelah turun di Shopping Centre. Sekarang telah dibangun jalan pintas menuju bukit tidar tempatnya di belakang terminal lama.

8. Taman Badaan

Taman Badaan
Taman Badaan

Taman yang berlokasi di Jalan Pahlawan ini merupakan taman yang sering dikunjungi setelah Taman Kyai Langgeng. Perbedaannya Taman Badaan ini terpusat untuk rekreasi anak yang banyak dipenuhi patung jerapah, gajah dan hewan lain. Disini, Anda juga bisa menikmati jajanan kuliner di sekitar taman badaan ini.

9. Wisata Belanja di Pecinan

Wisata Belanja di Pecinan
Wisata Belanja di Pecinan

Ini dia tempat yang cocok bagi Anda yang suka wisata belanja, Tempat ini wajib Anda kunjungi ketika berkunjung ke Magelang yaitu terletak di jalan pemuda, pecinan. Pecinan terdiri atas 2 ruas jalan. Ruas pertama adalah ruas jalan untuk kendaraan bermotor yang merupakan ruas jalan satu arah. Sedangkan satunya lagi merupakan jalan khusus untuk becak. Ruas jalan ini dulunya dilalui kereta api yang kini sudah tidak ada lagi di Magelang. Pecinan ini merupakan pusat niaga yang ada di Magelang, maka tidak heran jika banyak orang yang menyebut pecinan ini sebagai malioboro nya magelang.

Reported Speech Direct and Indirect Speech

Reported speech or indirect speech is a way of expressing what the other person (speaker) has said directly in the form of statements, questions, or greeting others by changing the format of the talks so that it becomes more clear, natural, and efficient for the listener , Logically, a transmitter of news does not report exactly every word uttered by someone. Direct speech is converted into Reported speech may be a statement (statement), imperative [command (command), invitation (invitation), request (demand)], yes / no question (questions), as well as information question (the question of information).
o Direct Speech is the spoken sentence directly from the speaker. Direct speech is a way to report what people have said or written, in the form of statements, questions, or other speech, quoting the exact words.
Example :

-Erfin Said, “I am so happy”.

-they Said, “We have watched the football game”.

Direct Speech

Direct speech repeats, or quotes, the exact words spoken. When we use direct speech in writing, we place the words spoken between quotation marks (” “) and there is no change in these words. We may be reporting something that’s being said NOW (for example a telephone conversation), or telling someone later about a previous conversation.

Examples
  • She says, “What time will you be home?”
  • She said, “What time will you be home?” and I said, “I don’t know! “
  • “There’s a fly in my soup!” screamed Simone.
  • John said, “There’s an elephant outside the window.”

o Indirect Speech is a phrase that comes from direct sentences that told back in another form.

Indirect Speech

Reported or indirect speech is usually used to talk about the past, so we normally change the tense of the words spoken. We use reporting verbs like ‘say’, ‘tell’, ‘ask’, and we may use the word ‘that’ to introduce the reported words. Inverted commas are not used.

She said, “I saw him.” (direct speech) = She said that she had seen him. (indirect speech)

‘That’ may be omitted:
She told him that she was happy. = She told him she was happy.

Example :

-Erfin Said that he was so happy

-they Said that they had watched the football game.

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH / REPORTED SPEECH
1. Present tense (simple/continuous)
He said, “I study English”.
He said, “I am studying English”. 1. Past tense (simple/continuous)
He said that he studied English
He said that he was studying English
2. Past tense (Simple/continuous)
He said, “I studied English”.
He said, “I was studying English”. 2. Past perfect/perfect continuous
He said that he had studied English.
He said that he had been studying English.
3. Present perfect tense/continuous
He said, “I have studied English”.
He said, “I have been studying English”. 3. Past perfect tense/continuous
He said that he had studied English.
He said that he had been studying English.
4. Future tense (simple/continuous)
He said, “I will study English”.
He said, “I will be studying English”. 4. Past future tense (simple/continuous)
He said that he would study English
He said that he would have been studying English.
5. Future perfect tense/continuous
He said, “I will have studied English”.
He said, “I will have been studying English”. 5. Past future perfect/continuous
He said that he would have studied English
He said that he would have been studying English.
6. Past future tense (simple/continuous)
He said, “I would study English”.
He said, “I would be studying English”. 6. Past perfect future (simple/continuous)
He said that he would have studied English
He said that he would have been studying English.

o Direct and Indirect speech can be divided into 3 parts:
• Command
Command consists of 2 types, Positive and Negative Command Command
Positive Command
In this pattern introductory phrase is expressed with verbs: tell, ask, advise, etc. To be followed by the infinitive.
Ecample
Direct : The teacher said to me : “open your book”
Indirect : The teacher asked me to open my book
Negative Command
Introductory sentence: He asked me, He told me not to + reporter words, He ordered me
Direct : Father asked me : “ Don’t go out”
Indirect : Father asked me no to go out.
• Statement
In indirect statement, “that” is used as a liaison between the introductory sentences and words that are reported (reported speech) Introductory sentence in the statement: He said + that + Reported words.
Example
Direct : She says: “I go to school everyday.”
Indirect : She says that he goes to school everyday.
• Question
When a direct question in the form of YES and NO answer then IF or Whether as a support between the introductory phrase and Reported words.
Introductory sentence for the pattern is: He asked me IF / Whether.

When questions using words Questions such as: where, when, what, why, who, Whose, how, etc. then these words serve as a link between the introductory phrase and Reported words, the pattern is as follows: He asked me + Question Reported words Words.
Direct : we asked the man “Do you like coffe?”
Indirect : we asked the man if/whether he liked coffe.
Direct : seisy asked Helen : “have you seen that film?”
Indirect : seisy asked Helen if/whether she had seen that film.

The Changing Part

– To be & Auxiliary Verbs

Direct                           –                       Indirect

Am/is/are                      –                       was/were

Shall/will                       –                       should/would

Can                              –                       could

May                             –                       might

Must                            –                       might

Have/has to                  –                       had to

Ought to                       –                       had to

– Tenses

Direct                                      –                       Indirect

Simple present                         –                       simple past

Present perfect                        –                        past perfect

Present continuous                   –                       past continous

Present perfect continous         –                       past perfect continous

Simple future                           –                       past future
Time Reference

time
Exercise

1. Did they eat out together yesterday?
A. He asked me if they had eaten out together yesterday.
B. He asked me if they had eaten out together the day before.
C. He asked me if they has eaten out together the day before.

2. Don’t turn off the light now.
A. He told me don’t turn off the light at that time.
B. He told me not to turn off the light at that time.
C. He told me didn’t turn off the light at that time.

3. What’s your passion?
A. She wanted to know what is my passion.
B. She wanted to know what was my passion.
C. She wanted to know what my passion was.

4. I begin to understand the concept of biodiversity.
A. He asked me that he began to understand the concept of Biodiversity.
B. He wanted to know if he began to understand the concept of Biodiversity.
C. He said that he began to understand the concept of Biodiversity.

5. Your friend has just left.
A. He told me that your friend had just left.
B. He told me that my friend has just left.
C. He told me that my friend had just left.

6. Can I borrow your pencil for a moment?
A. She asked me if she can borrow my pencil for a moment.
B. She asked me whether she can borrow my pencil for a moment.
C. She asked me whether she could borrow my pencil for a moment.

7. Why are you staring at my feet?
A. He asked her why she is staring at his feet.
B. He asked her why she was staring at his feet.
C. He asked her why was she staring at his feet.

8. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
A. He said that the sun rose in the east and set in the west.
B. He said that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
C. He asked if the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

9. I’m going to meet my penpal for the first time tomorrow.
A. She said she was going to meet her penpal for the first time the next day.
B. She said she was going to meet my penpal for the first time tomorrow.
C. She said she was going to meet her penpal for the first time tomorrow.

10. We have been here for a week.
A. They said they had been there for a week.
B. They said they had been here for a week.
C. They said we had been there for a week.

Retrieve on :

http://bayuaprian35.blogspot.co.id/2013/05/direct-and-indirect-speech.html
https://inggrishbahasa.wordpress.com/lesson-english/english-grammar/179-2/
http://grammarworm.blogspot.co.id/
http://www.e-sbmptn.com/2014/12/download-soal-reported-speech-direct.html
http://www.carabelajarbahasainggrisoke.com/2014/08/pengertian-dan-contoh-indirect-speech-atau-reported-speech.htmlhttp://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/direct-and-indirect-speech/

 

Modal Auxiliaries Verbs

What are Modal Verbs?

Modal verbs are special verbs which behave very differently from normal verbs. Here are some important differences:

  1. Modal verbs do not take “-s” in the third person.

Examples:

  • He can  speak Chinese.
  • She should  be here by 9:00.
  1. You use “not” to make modal verbs negative, even in Simple Present and Simple Past.

Examples:

  • He should not be late.
  • They might not come to the party.
  1. Many Modal Verbs cannot be used in the Past Tenses or the Future Tenses.

Examples:

  • He will can go with us. Not Correct
  • She musted study very hard. Not Correct

Common Modal Verbs

Can
Could
May
Might
Must
Ought to
Shall
Should
Will
Would

For the purposes of this tutorial, we have included some expressions which are not modal verbs including had better, have to, and have got to. These expressions are closely related to modals in meaning and are often interchanged with them.

Modal verbs can be used in a variety of different forms :

Modal Simple
I should clean the room once a day.
Passive Modal Simple
The room should be cleaned once a day.
Modal Continuous
I should be cleaning the room now.
Passive Modal Continuous
The room should be being cleaned now.
Modal Perfect
I should have cleaned the room yesterday.
Passive Modal Perfect
The room should have been cleaned yesterday.
Modal Perfect Continuous
I should have been cleaning the room instead of watching TV.
Passive Modal Perfect Continuous
The room should have been being cleaned but nobody was there. (Rare form)

 

What are “Modal Auxiliary Verbs”?

The verbs can, could, will, would, should, may, might, must, ought and shall are verbs which ‘help’ other verbs to express a meaning: it is important to realize that these “modal verbs” have no meaning by themselves. A modal verb such as would has several varying functions; it can be used, for example, to help verbs express ideas about the past, the present and the future. It is therefore wrong to simply believe that “would is the past of will”: it is many other things.

A few basic grammatical rules applying to modal verbs :

  1. Modal verbs are NEVER used with other auxiliary verbs such as do, does, did etc. The negative is formed simply by adding “not” after the verb; questions are formed by inversion of the verb and subject:

    You should not do that.
    Could you pick me up when I’ve finished?

  1. Modal verbs NEVER change form: you can never add an “-s” or “-ed”, for example.
  1. Modal verbs are NEVER followed by to, with the exception of ought to.

What sort of meanings do modals give to other verbs?

The meaning are usually connected with ideas of DOUBT, CERTAINTY, POSSIBILITY and PROBABILITY, OBLIGATION and PERMISSION (or lack of these). You will see that they are not used to talk about things that definitely exist, or events that definitely happened. These meanings are sometimes divided into two groups:

  1. DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: certainty; probability; possibility; impossibiliton
  2. OBLIGATION/FREEDOM TO ACT: permission,lack of permission; ability; obligation.

look at each modal verb separately, and the functions they help to express:

  • WILL

“Will” is used with promises or voluntary actions that take place in the future. “Will” can also be used to make predictions about the future.

Examples:

  • I promise that I will write you every single day. promise
  • I will make dinner tonight. voluntary action
  • He thinks it will rain tomorrow. prediction
Modal Use Positive Forms Negative Forms Also use:
will
future action,
prediction
The marketing director will be replaced by someone from the New York office.

Fred will be there by 8:00.

The marketing director will not be replaced after all.

Fred will not be there. He has a previous obligation.

shall
will
volunteering,
promising
I will take care of everything for you.

I will make the travel arrangements. There’s no need to worry.

I will never forget you.

I will never give up the fight for freedom.

shall

More Examples of “Will”

  1. Making personal predictions
  • I don’t think the Queen will ever abdicate.
  • I doubt if I’ll stay here much longer.
  1. Talking about the present with certainty (making deductions)
  • I’m sure you will understand that there is nothing the Department can do
  • There’s a letter for you. It’ll be from the bank: they said they’d be writing.
  1. Talking about the future with certainty
  • I won’t be in the office until 11; I’ve got a meeting.
  • Don’t bother ringing: they’ll have left for their 10 o’clock lecture.
  1. Talking about the past with certainty
  • I’m sure you will have noticed that attendance has fallen sharply.
  1. Reassuring someone
  • Don’t worry! You’ll settle down quickly, I’m sure.
  • It’ll be all right! You won’t have to speak by yourself.
  1. Making a decision
  • For the main course I’ll have grilled tuna.
  • I’m very tired. I think I’ll stay at home tonight.
  1. Making a semi-formal request
  • Will you open the window, please? It’s very hot in here.
  • Sign this, will you?
  1. Offering to do something
  • You stay there! I’ll fetch the drinks.
  1. Insistence; habitual behaviour
  • I’m not surprised you don’t know what to do! You will keep talking in class.
  • Damn! My car won’t start. I’ll have to call the garage.
  1. Making a promise or a threat
  2. You can count on me! I’ll be there at 8 o’clock sharp.

If you don’t finish your dinner off, you’ll go straight to bed!

  • SHALL

“Shall” is used to indicate future action. It is most commonly used in sentences with “I” or “we,” and is often found in suggestions, such as “Shall we go?” “Shall” is also frequently used in promises or voluntary actions. In formal English, the use of “shall” to describe future events often expresses inevitability or predestination. “Shall” is much more commonly heard in British English than in American English; Americans prefer to use other forms, although they do sometimes use “shall” in suggestions or formalized language.

Examples:

  • Shall I help you? suggestion
  • I shall never forget where I came from. promise
  • He shall become our next king. predestination
  • I’m afraid Mr. Smith shall become our new director. inevitability
Modal Use Positive Forms Negative Forms Also use:
shall
future action

(British form)

I shall be replaced by someone from the New York office.

I shall be there by 8:00.

I shall not be replaced after all.

I shall not be there. I have a previous obligation.

will
shall
suggestions
Shall we begin dinner?

Shall we move into the living room?

should
shall
volunteering,
promising

(British form)

I shall take care of everything for you.

I shall make the travel arrangements. There’s no need to worry.

I shall never forget you.

I shall never give up the fight for freedom.

will
shall
inevitability

(British form)

Man shall explore the distant regions of the universe.

We shall overcome oppression.

Man shall never give up the exploration of the universe.

He shall not be held back.

More Examples of “Shall”

Shall is a form of will, used mostly in the first person. Its use, however, is decreasing, and in any case in spoken English it would be contracted to “-ll” and be indistinguishable from will.

The only time you do need to use it is in questions, when:

  • Making offers
    Shall I fetch you another glass of wine?
  • Making suggestions
    Shall we go to the cinema tonight?
  • MAY & MIGHT

“May” is most commonly used to express possibility. It can also be used to give or request permission, although this usage is becoming less common.

Examples:

  • Cheryl may be at home, or perhaps at work. possibility
  • Johnny, you may leave the table when you have finished your dinner. give permission
  • May I use your bathroom? request permission

Using “May” in Present, Past, and Future

Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how “may” behaves in different contexts.

Modal Use Positive Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Also use:
may
possibility
1. Jack may be upset. I can’t really tell if he is annoyed or tired.

2. Jack may have been upset. I couldn’t really tell if he was annoyed or tired.

3. Jack may get upset if you don’t tell him the truth.

1. Jack may not be upset. Perhaps he is tired.

2. Jack may not have been upset. Perhaps he was tired.

3. Jack may not get upset, even if you tell him the truth

might
may
give permission
1. You may leave the table now that you’re finished with your dinner.

2. SHIFT TO “BE ALLOWED TO”
You were allowed to leave the table after you finished your dinner.

3. You may leave the table when you finish your dinner.

1. You may not leave the table. You’re not finished with your dinner yet.

2. SHIFT TO “BE ALLOWED TO”
You were not allowed to leave the table because you hadn’t finished your dinner.

3. You may not leave the table until you are finished with your dinner.

can
may
request permission
May I borrow your eraser?

May I make a phone call?

Requests usually refer to the near future.

NO NEGATIVE FORMS can,
might

 

“Might” is most commonly used to express possibility. It is also often used in conditional sentences. English speakers can also use “might” to make suggestions or requests, although this is less common in American English.

Examples:

  • Your purse might be in the living room. possibility
  • If I didn’t have to work, I might go with you. conditional
  • You might visit the botanical gardens during your visit. suggestion
  • Might I borrow your pen? request

Using “Might” in Present, Past, and Future

Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how “might” behaves in different contexts.

Modal Use Positive Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Also use:
might
possibility
1. She might be on the bus. I think her car is having problems.

2. She might have taken the bus. I’m not sure how she got to work.

3. She might take the bus to get home. I don’t think Bill will be able to give her a ride.

1. She might not be on the bus. She might be walking home.

2. She might not have taken the bus. She might have walked home.

3. She might not take the bus. She might get a ride from Bill.

could,
may
might
conditional of may
1. If I entered the contest, I might actually win.

2. If I had entered the contest, I might actually have won.

3. If I entered the contest tomorrow, I might actually win. Unfortunately, I can’t enter it.

1. Even if I entered the contest, I might not win.

2. Even if I had entered the contest, I might not have won.

3. Even if I entered the contest tomorrow, I might not win.

might
suggestion
1. NO PRESENT FORM

2. You might have tried the cheese cake.

3. You might try the cheesecake.

1. NO PRESENT FORM

2. PAST FORM UNCOMMON

3. You might not want to eat the cheese cake. It’s very calorific.

could
might
request

(British form)

Might I have something to drink?

Might I borrow the stapler?

Requests usually refer to the near future.

 NEGATIVE FORMS UNCOMMON could,
may,
can

 

REMEMBER: “Might not” vs. “Could not”
“Might not” suggests you do not know if something happens. “Could not” suggests that it is impossible for something to happen.

Examples:

  • Jack might not have the key. Maybe he does not have the key.
  • Jack could not have the key. It is impossible that he has the key.

 

May & might sometimes have virtually the same meaning; they are used to talk about possibilities in the past, present or future. (“Could” is also sometimes used).

May is sometimes a little bit “more sure” (50% chance); whereas might expresses more doubt (maybe only a 30% chance).

May & might are used for:

  • Talking about the present or future with uncertainty
    She may be back in her office: the lecture finished ten minutes ago.
    I may go shopping tonight, I haven’t decided yet.
    England might win the World Cup, you never know.
  • Talking about the past with uncertainty
    I’m surprised he failed. I suppose he might have been ill on the day of the exam.

sometimes be used for talking about permission, but usually only in formal situations. Instead of saying May I open a window? we would say Is it all right/OK if I open a window? or Can I open a window? For example :

e.q :Students may not borrow equipment without written permission.

  • MAY
  • Talking about things that can happen in certain situations
    If the monitors are used in poorly lit places, some users may experience headaches.
    Each nurse may be responsible for up to twenty patients.
  • With a similar meaning to although
    The experiment may have been a success, but there is still a lot of work to be done. (= Although it was a success, there is still …)
  • MIGHT
  • Saying that something was possible, but did not actually happen
    You saw me standing at the bus stop! You might have stopped and given me a lift!

 

  • WOULD

“Would” is most commonly used to create conditional verb forms. It also serves as the past form of the modal verb “will.” Additionally, “would” can indicate repetition in the past.

Examples:

  • If he were an actor, he would be in adventure movies. conditional
  • I knew that she would be very successful in her career. past of “will”
  • When they first met, they would always have picnics on the beach. repetition

Using “Would” in Present, Past, and Future

Modal Use Positive Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Also use:
would
conditional
1. If I were president, I would cut the cost of education.

2. If I had been president, I would have cut the cost of education.

3. If I were elected president next year, I would cut the cost of education.

1. If I were president, I would not raise taxes.

2. If I had been president, I would not have raised taxes.

3. If I were president, I would not sign the tax increase next week.

would
past of “will”
I said I would help you.

He told me he would be here before 8:00.

I said I wouldn’t help you.

He told me he would not be here before 8:00.

would
repetition in past
When I was a kid, I would always go to the beach.

When he was young, he would always do his homework.

When I was a kid, I wouldn’t go into the water by myself.

When he got older, he would never do his homework.

used to

 

  • As the past of will, for example in indirect speech
    “The next meeting will be in a month’s time” becomes
    He said the next meeting would be in a month’s time.
  • Polite requests and offers (a ‘softer’ form of will)
    Would you like another cup of tea?
    Would you give me a ring after lunch?
    I’d like the roast duck, please.
  • In conditionals, to indicate ‘distance from reality’: imagined, unreal, impossible situations
    If I ruled the world, every day would be the first day of Spring.
    It would have been better if you’d word processed your assignment.
  • After ‘wish’, to show regret or irritation over someone (or something’s) refusal or insistence on doing something (present or future)
    I wish you wouldn’t keep interrupting me.
    I wish it would snow.
  • Talking about past habits (similiar meaning to used to)
    When I was small, we would always visit relatives on Christmas Day.
  • Future in the past
    The assassination would become one of the key events of the century.

 

  • CAN & COULD

“Can” is one of the most commonly used modal verbs in English. It can be used to express ability or opportunity, to request or offer permission, and to show possibility or impossibility.

Examples:

  • I can ride a horse. ability
  • We can stay with my brother when we are in Paris. opportunity
  • She cannot stay out after 10 PM. Permission
  • Can you hand me the stapler? request
  • Any child can grow up to be president. possibility

Using “Can” in Present, Past, and Future

Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how “can” behaves in different contexts.

Modal Use Positive Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Also use:
can
general ability
1. I can speak Chinese.

2. SHIFT TO “COULD”
I could speak Chinese when I was a kid.

3. SHIFT TO “BE ABLE TO”
I will be able to speak Chinese by the time I finish my course.

1. I can’t speak Swahili.

2. SHIFT TO “COULD”
I couldn’t speak Swahili.

3. SHIFT TO “BE ABLE TO”
I won’t be able to speak Swahili.

be able to
can
ability during a specific event
1. With a burst of adrenaline, people can pick up cars.

2. SHIFT TO “BE ABLE TO”
With a sudden burst of adrenaline, he was able to lift the car off the child’s leg.

3. SHIFT TO “BE ABLE TO”
With a sudden burst of adrenaline, he will be able to lift the car.

1. Even with a burst of adrenaline, people can’t pick up something that heavy.

2. SHIFT TO “BE ABLE TO”
Even the weight lifter, wasn’t able to lift the car off the child’s leg.

3. SHIFT TO “BE ABLE TO”
Even three men working together won’t be able to lift the car.

be able to
can
opportunity
1. I have some free time. I can help her now.

2. SHIFT TO “BE ABLE TO”
I had some free time yesterday. I was able to help her at that time.

3. I’ll have some free time tomorrow. I can help her then.

1. I don’t have any time. I can’t help her  now.

2. SHIFT TO “BE ABLE TO”
I didn’t have time yesterday. I wasn’t able to help her at that time.

3. I won’t have any time later. I can’t help her then.

be able to
can
permission
1. I can drive Susan’s car when she is out of town.

2. SHIFT TO “BE ALLOWED TO ”
I was allowed to drive Susan’s car while she was out of town last week.

3. I can drive Susan’s car while she is out of town next week.

1. I can’t drive Susan’s car when she is out of town.

2. SHIFT TO “BE ALLOWED TO ”
I wasn’t allowed to drive Susan’s car while she was out of town last week.

3. I can’t drive Susan’s car while she is out of town next week.

may
can
request
Can I have a glass of water?

Can you give me a lift to school?

Requests usually refer to the near future.

Can’t I have a glass of water?

Can’t you give me a lift to school?

Requests usually refer to the near future.

could, may
can
possibility, impossibility
Anyone can become rich and famous if they know the right people.

Learning a language can be a real challenge.

This use is usually a generalization or a supposition.

It can’t cost more than a dollar or two.

You can’t be 45! I thought you were about 18 years old.

This use is usually a generalization or a supposition.

could

 

“Could” is used to express possibility or past ability as well as to make suggestions and requests. “Could” is also commonly used in conditional sentences as the conditional form of “can.”

Examples:

  • Extreme rain could cause the river to flood the city. possibility
  • Nancy could ski like a pro by the age of 11. past ability
  • You could see a movie or go out to dinner. suggestion
  • Could I use your computer to email my boss? request
  • We could go on the trip if I didn’t have to work this weekend. conditional

Using “Could” in Present, Past, and Future

Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how “could” behaves in different contexts.

Modal Use Positive Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Also use:
could
possibility
1. John could be the one who stole the money.2. John could have been the one who stole the money.

3. John could go to jail for stealing the money.

1. Mary couldn’t be the one who stole the money.2. Mary couldn’t have been the one who stole the money.

3. Mary couldn’t possibly go to jail for the crime.

might,
may
could
conditional
of can
1. If I had more time, I could travel around the world.2. If I had had more time, I could have traveled around the world.

3. If I had more time this winter, I could travel around the world.

1. Even if I had more time, I couldn’t travel around the world.2. Even if I had had more time, I couldn’t have traveled around the world.

3. Even if I had more time this winter, I couldn’t travel around the world.

could
suggestion
1. NO PRESENT FORM2. You could have spent your vacation in Hawaii.

3. You could spend your vacation in Hawaii.

 NO NEGATIVE FORMS
could
past ability
I could run ten miles in my twenties.I could speak Chinese when I was a kid.

“Could” cannot be used in positive sentences in which you describe a momentary or one-time ability.

Yesterday, I could lift the couch by myself. Not Correct

I couldn’t run more than a mile in my twenties.I couldn’t speak Swahili.

“Could” can be used in negative sentences in which you describe a momentary or one-time ability.

Yesterday, I couldn’t lift the couch by myself. Correct

be able to
could
polite request
Could I have something to drink?Could I borrow your stapler?

Requests usually refer to the near future.

Couldn’t he come with us?Couldn’t you help me with this for just a second?

Requests usually refer to the near future.

can,
may,
might
REMEMBER: “Could not” vs. “Might not”
“Could not” suggests that it is impossible for something to happen. “Might not” suggests you do not know if something happens.

Examples:

  • Jack might not have the key. Maybe he does not have the key.
  • Jack could not have the key. It is impossible that he has the key.
  • Talking about ability
    Can you speak Mandarin? (present)
    She could play the piano when she was five. (past)
  • Making requests
    Can you give me a ring at about 10?
    Could you speak up a bit please? (slightly more formal, polite or ‘softer’)
  • Asking permission
    Can I ask you a question?
    Could I ask you a personal question? (more formal, polite or indirect)
  • Reported speech
    Could is used as the past of can.
    He asked me if I could pick him up after work.
  • General possibility
    You can drive when you’re 17. (present)
    Women couldn’t vote until just after the First World War.
  • Choice and opportunities
    If you want some help with your writing, you can come to classes, or you can get some 1:1 help.
    We could go to Stratford tomorrow, but the forecast’s not brilliant. (less definite)
  • Future probability

Could (NOT can) is sometimes used in the same way as might or may, often indicating something less definite.

  • When I leave university I might travel around a bit, I might do an MA or I suppose I could even get a job.
  • Present possibility
    I think you could be right you know. (NOT can)
    That can’t be the right answer, it just doesn’t make sense.
  • Past possibility
    If I’d known the lecture had been cancelled, I could have stayed in bed longer.

 

  • MUST

“Must” is most commonly used to express certainty. It can also be used to express necessity or strong recommendation, although native speakers prefer the more flexible form “have to.” “Must not” can be used to prohibit actions, but this sounds very severe; speakers prefer to use softer modal verbs such as “should not” or “ought not” to dissuade rather than prohibit.

Examples:

  • This must be the right address! certainty
  • Students must pass an entrance examination to study at this school. necessity
  • You must take some medicine for that cough. strong recommendation
  • Jenny, you must not play in the street! prohibition

Using “Must” in Present, Past, and Future

Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how “must” behaves in different contexts.

Modal Use Positive Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Also use:
must
certainty
1. That must be Jerry. They said he was tall with bright red hair.

2. That must have been the right restaurant. There are no other restaurants on this street.

3. NO FUTURE FORM

1. That must not be Jerry. He is supposed to have red hair.

2. That must not have been the right restaurant. I guess there is another one around here somewhere.

3. NO FUTURE FORM

have to
must not
prohibition
You must not swim in that river. It’s full of crocodiles.

You must not forget to take your malaria medication while your are in the tropics.

Prohibition usually refer to the near future.

must
strong
recommendation

(Americans
prefer
the form
“should.”)

1. You must take some time off and get some rest.

2. SHIFT TO “SHOULD”
You should have taken some time off last week to get some rest.

3. SHIFT TO “SHOULD”
You should take some time off next week to get some rest.

1. You mustn’t drink so much. It’s not good for your health.

2. SHIFT TO “SHOULD”
You shouldn’t have drunk so much. That caused the accident.

3. SHIFT TO “SHOULD”
You shouldn’t drink at the party. You are going to be the designated driver.

should
must
necessity

(Americans
prefer
the form
“have to.”)

1. You must have a permit to enter the national park.

2. SHIFT TO “HAVE TO”
We had to have a permit to enter the park.

3. We must get a permit to enter the park next week.

1. SHIFT TO “HAVE TO”
We don’t have to get a permit to enter the national park.

2. SHIFT TO “HAVE TO”
We didn’t have to get a permit to enter the national park.

3. SHIFT TO “HAVE TO”
We won’t have to get a permit to enter the national park.

have to

 

REMEMBER: “Must not” vs. “Do not have to”
“Must not” suggests that you are prohibited from doing something. “Do not have to” suggests that someone is not required to do something.

Examples:

  • You must not eat that. It is forbidden, it is not allowed.
  • You don’t have to eat that. You can if you want to, but it is not necessary.

 

Examples here refer to British English; there is some variation in American English.

  1. Necessity and obligation

Must is often used to indicate ‘personal’ obligation; what you think you yourself or other people/things must do. If the obligation comes from outside (eg a rule or law), then have to is often (but not always) preferred:

I really must get some exercise.
People must try to be more tolerant of each other.
You musn’t look – promise?

If you own a car, you have to pay an annual road tax.

  1. Strong advice and invitations

    I think you really must make more of an effort.
    You must go and see the film – it’s brilliant.
    You must come and see me next time you’re in town.

  2. Saying you think something is certain

    This must be the place – there’s a white car parked outside.
    You must be mad.
    What a suntan! You must have had great weather.

  3. The negative is expressed by can’t:
    You’re going to sell your guitar! You can’t be serious!
    She didn’t wave – she can’t have seen me.

 

  • SHOULD

“Should” is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It can also be used to express obligation as well as expectation.

Examples:

  • When you go to Berlin, you should visit the palaces in Potsdam. recommendation
  • You should focus more on your family and less on work. advice
  • I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM. obligation
  • By now, they should already be in Dubai. expectation

Using “Should” in Present, Past, and Future

Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how “should” behaves in different contexts.

Modal Use Positive Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Also use:
should
recommendation, advisability
1. People with high cholesterol should eat low-fat foods.

2. Frank should have eaten low-fat foods. That might have prevented his heart attack.

3. You really should start eating better.

1. Sarah shouldn’t smoke so much. It’s not good for her health.

2. Sarah shouldn’t have smoked so much. That’s what caused her health problems.

3. Sarah shouldn’t smoke when she visits Martha next week. Martha hates when people smoke in her house.

ought to
should
obligation
I should be at work before 9:00.

We should return the video before the video rental store closes.

“Should” can also express something between recommendation and obligation. “Be supposed to” expresses a similar idea and can easily be used in the past or in negative forms.

 NO NEGATIVE FORMS be supposed to
should
expectation
1. Susan should be in New York by now.

2. Susan should have arrived in New York last week. Let’s call her and see what she is up to.

3. Susan should be in New York by next week. Her new job starts on Monday.

1. Susan shouldn’t be in New York yet.

2. Susan shouldn’t have arrived in New York until yesterday.

3. Susan shouldn’t arrive in New York until next week.

ought to,
be supposed to

 

  • Giving advice

    I think you should go for the Alfa rather than the Audi.
    You shouldn’t be drinking if you’re on antibiotics.
    You shouldn’t have ordered that chocolate dessert – you’re not going to finish it.

  • Obligation: weak form of must

    The university should provide more sports facilities.
    The equipment should be inspected regularly.

  • Deduction

    The letter should get to you tomorrow – I posted it first class.

  • Things which didn’t or may/may not have happened

    I should have renewed my TV licence last month, but I forgot.
    You shouldn’t have spent so much time on that first question.

 

  • Ought to

Ought to usually has the same meaning as should, particularly in affirmative statements in the present, Should is much more common (and easier to say!), so if you’re not sure, use should:

You should/ought to get your hair cut.

“Ought to” is used to advise or make recommendations. “Ought to” also expresses assumption or expectation as well as strong probability, often with the idea that something is deserved. “Ought not” (without “to”) is used to advise against doing something, although Americans prefer the less formal forms “should not” or “had better not.”

Examples:

  • You ought to stop smoking. recommendation
  • Jim ought to get the promotion. It is expected because he deserves it.
  • This stock ought to increase in value. probability
  • Mark ought not drink so much. advice against something (notice there is no “to”)

Using “Ought to” in Present, Past, and Future

Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how “ought to” behaves in different contexts.

Modal Use Positive Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Also use:
ought to
recommendation, advice
1. Margaret ought to exercise more.

2. Margaret ought to have exercised more so she would be better prepared for the marathon.

3. Margaret ought to come to the fitness center with us tonight.

1. Margaret ought not exercise too much. It might cause injury.

2. Margaret ought not have run the marathon. She wasn’t in good shape.

3. Margaret ought not stay at home in front of the TV. She should go to the fitness center with us.

should
ought to
assumption, expectation, probability
1. She ought to have the package by now.

2. She ought to have received the package yesterday.

3. She ought to receive the package tonight.

“Ought not” is used primarily to express negative recommendations. (See above.) should

 

Notice “Ought not”
Remember that “ought to” loses the “to” in the negative. Instead of “ought not to,” we say “ought not.” “Ought not” is more commonly used in British English. Americans prefer “should not.”

 

Had Better

“Had better” is most commonly used to make recommendations. It can also be used to express desperate hope as well as warn people.

Examples:

  • You had better take your umbrella with you today. recommendation
  • That bus had better get here soon! desperate hope
  • You had better watch the way you talk to me in the future! warning

Using “Had Better” in Present, Past, and Future

Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how “had better” behaves in different contexts.

Use Positive Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Also use:
had better
recommendation
1. SHIFT TO “SHOULD” OR “OUGHT TO”
People should unplug toasters before they clean them.

2. SHIFT TO “SHOULD HAVE” OR “OUGHT TO HAVE”
You should have unplugged the toaster before you tried to clean it.

3. You had better unplug the toaster before you try to clean it.

1. SHIFT TO “SHOULD” OR “OUGHT TO”
People shouldn’t clean toasters without unplugging them first.

2. SHIFT TO “SHOULD HAVE” OR “OUGHT TO HAVE”
You shouldn’t have cleaned the toaster without unplugging it first.

3. You had better not clean the toaster until you unplug it.

should,
ought to
had better
desperate hope,
warning
The movie had better end soon.

They had better be here before we start dinner.

Desperate hopes and warnings usually refer to the near future.

They had better not be late.

They had better not forget Tom’s birthday gift.

Desperate hopes and warnings usually refer to the near future.

 

“Had better” is often simply pronounced as “better” in spoken English.

Have Got To

“Have got to” is used to express necessity and obligation.

Examples:

  • Drivers have got to get a license to drive a car in the US. necessity
  • I have got to be at work by 8:30 AM. obligation

Using “Have Got to” in Present, Past, and Future

Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how “have got to” behaves in different contexts.

Use Positive Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Also use:
have got to
necessity
1. People have got to be on time if they want to get a seat in the crowded theater.

2. SHIFT TO “HAVE TO”
You had to be on time if you wanted to get a seat in the crowded theater.

3. You have got to be there on time tonight if you want to get a seat in the crowded theater.

1. SHIFT TO “HAVE TO”
People don’t have to be there on time to get a seat.

2. SHIFT TO “HAVE TO”
You didn’t have to be there on time to get a seat.

3. SHIFT TO “HAVE TO”
You won’t have to be there on time to get a seat.

have to,
must
haven’t got to
future obligation
Haven’t you got to be there by 7:00?

Haven’t you got to finish that project today?

“Haven’t got to” is primarily used to ask about future obligations. It can be used in statements, but this is less common.

Don’t you have to

Have to

“Have to” is used to express certainty, necessity, and obligation.

Examples:

  • This answer has to be correct. certainty
  • The soup has to be stirred continuously to prevent burning. necessity
  • They have to leave early. obligation

Using “Have to” in Present, Past, and Future

“Have to” behaves quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how “have to” behaves in different contexts.

Use Positive Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Negative Forms
1. = Present   2. = Past   3. = Future
Also use:
have to
certainty
1. That has to be Jerry. They said he was tall with bright red hair.

2. That has to have been the right restaurant. There were no other restaurants on the street.

3. NONE

1. SHIFT TO “MUST”
That must not be Jerry. They said he has blond hair, not red hair.

2. SHIFT TO “MUST”
That must not have been the right restaurant. I guess there was another one around there somewhere.

3. NONE

must,
have got to
have to
necessity
1. She has to read four books for this literature class.

2. She had to finish the first book before the midterm.

3. She will have to finish the other books before the final exam.

1. She doesn’t have to read “Grapes of Wrath.” It’s optional reading for extra credit.

2. She didn’t have to write a critique of “The Scarlet Letter.” She had to give a presentation to her class.

3. She won’t have to take any other literature classes. American Literature 101 is the only required course.

must

 

REMEMBER: “Do not have to” vs. “Must not”
“Do not have to” suggests that someone is not required to do something. “Must not” suggests that you are prohibited from doing something.

Examples:

  • You must not eat that. It is forbidden, it is not allowed.
  • You don’t have to eat that. You can if you want to, but it is not necessary.

 

 

MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS EXERCISES

  1. I’m not really sure where Beverly is. She______________in the living room, or perhaps she’s in the backyard.

    Doug _________________the video we rented on his way to work. It was on the table, but now it’s gone.

    3. You______________the air pressure in your tires. You don’t want to get a flat tire on your trip.

    4. The computer isn’t working. It_____________during production.

    5. The package____________tomorrow afternoon. It was sent by express mail this morning.

    6. You________________the tickets for the play in advance – they sell out quickly.

    7. You can’t mean that! You____________.

    8. If Debbie hasn’t come home yet, she___________for us in the coffee shop.

    9. Mike decided not to join us for lunch. He_________at work to finish the marketing report.

    10. If I had gone with my friends to Jamaica, I__________on a white sand beach right now.

    11. If I had gone with my friends to Jamaica, I___________come to work this week.

    12. If I had gone with my friends to Jamaica, I_______________scuba diving lessons.

    13. Margaret agreed to meet us at the entrance to the theater. She_________for us when we get there.

    14. It_______________Sam who called and didn’t leave a message on the answering machine. He said he wanted to get together with us this weekend.

    15. The machine____________on by flipping this switch.

    16. She_____________. That could have been why her eyes were so red and swollen.

    17. If she was crying, she________________very upset.

    18. That painting _____________by Picasso. It could be a forgery.

    19. Your diving equipment_______________regularly if you want to keep it in good condition.

    20. If I hadn’t taken a taxi, I______________for you at the train station for hours.

Scroll Down for the Answer !

  1. might be sitting
  2. must have returned
  3. ought to check
  4. must have been damaged
  5. should be delivered
  6. have to book
  7. have got to be joking.
  8. must still be waiting
  9. had to stay
  10. would be lying
  11. would not have had to
  12. could have taken
  13. ought to be waiting
  14. might have been
  15. can be turned
  16. might have been crying
  17. must have been
  18. might not have been painted
  19. must be cleaned
  20. might have been waiting

 

Retrieve on Thursday, 26 November 2015

http://library.bcu.ac.uk/learner/Grammar%20Guides/3.07%20Modals.htm#Top

http://www.englishpage.com/modals/modalforms.html

http://www.englishpage.com/modals/can.html

http://www.englishpage.com/modals/could.html

http://www.englishpage.com/modals/shall.html

http://www.englishpage.com/modals/should.html

http://www.englishpage.com/modals/may.html

http://www.englishpage.com/modals/might.html

http://www.englishpage.com/modals/hadbetter.html

http://www.englishpage.com/modals/havegotto.html

http://www.englishpage.com/modals/oughtto.html

http://www.englishpage.com/modals/will.html

http://www.englishpage.com/modals/would.html

http://www.englishpage.com/modals/must.html

http://www.englishpage.com/modals/haveto.html

http://www.englishpage.com/modals/interactivemodal7.htm

 

conditional sentences : if-clause

Conditional sentences: if-clauses type I, II, III, Zero Conditional, Mixed Type Conditional.

Conditional sentences

Conditional sentences are sometimes confusing for learners of English as a second language. Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are used to express that the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled. There are three types of Conditional Sentences. Conditional tenses are used to speculate about what could happen, what might have happened, and what we wish would happen. In English, most sentences using the conditional contain the word if. Many conditional forms in English are used in sentences that include verbs in one of the past tenses. This usage is referred to as “the unreal past” because we use a past tense but we are not actually referring to something that happened in the past.

Watch out:

  1. Which type of conditional sentences is it?
  2. Where is the if-clause (e.g. at the beginning or at the end of the conditional sentence)?

 

There are three types of conditional sentences.

type condition
I condition possible to fulfill
II It is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled.
III condition not possible to fulfill (too late)
  1. Form
type if-clause main clause
I Simple Present will-future or (Modal + infinitive)
II Simple Past would + infinitive *
III Past Perfect would + have + past participle *
  1. Examples (if-clause at the beginning)
type if clause main clause
I If I study, I will pass the exam.
II If I studied, I would pass the exam.
III If I had studied, I would have passed the exam.
  1. Examples (if-clause at the end)
type main clause if-clause
I I will pass the exam if I study.
II I would pass the exam if I studied.
III I would have passed the exam if I had studied.
  1. Examples (affirmative and negative sentences)
type   Examples
    long forms short/contracted forms
I + If I study, I will pass the exam. If I study, I’ll pass the exam.
If I study, I will not fail the exam.
If I do not study, I will fail the exam.
If I study, I won’t fail the exam.
If I don’t study, I’ll fail the exam.
II  

+

 

If I studied, I would pass the exam.

 

If I studied, I’d pass the exam.

If I studied, I would not fail the exam.
If I did not study, I would fail the exam.
If I studied, I wouldn’t fail the exam.
If I didn’t study, I’d fail the exam.
III  

 

+

 

 

If I had studied, I would have passed the exam.

 

 

If I’d studied, I’d have passed the exam.

If I had studied, I would not have failed the exam.
If I had not studied, I would have failed the exam.
If I’d studied, I wouldn’t have failed the exam.
If I hadn’t studied, I’d have failed the exam.

 

 

There is another types of Conditional Sentences, here they are :

Conditional sentence type Usage If clause verb tense Main clause verb tense
Zero General truths Simple present Simple present
Type 1 A possible condition and its probable result Simple present Simple future
Type 2 A hypothetical condition and its probable result Simple past Present conditional or Present continuous conditional
Type 3 An unreal past condition and its probable result in the past Past perfect Perfect conditional
Mixed type An unreal past condition and its probable result in the present Past perfect Present contditional
  • Type Zero Conditional

The zero conditional is used for when the time being referred to is now or always and the situation is real and possible. The zero conditional is often used to refer to general truths. The tense in both parts of the sentence is the simple present. In zero conditional sentences, the word “if” can usually be replaced by the word “when” without changing the meaning.

If clause Main clause
If + simple present simple present
If this thing happens that thing happens.
If you heat ice it melts.
If it rains the grass gets wet.

o   Zero Conditional

Form

In zero conditional sentences, the tense in both parts of the sentence is the simple present.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple present simple present
If this thing happens that thing happens.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical. In zero conditional sentences, you can replace “if” with “when”, because both express general truths. The meaning will be unchanged.

Examples
  • If you heat ice, it melts.
  • Ice melts if you heat it.
  • When you heat ice, it melts.
  • Ice melts when you heat it.
  • If it rains, the grass gets wet.
  • The grass gets wet if it rains.
  • When it rains, the grass gets wet.
  • The grass gets wet when it rains.

Function

The zero conditional is used to make statements about the real world, and often refers to general truths, such as scientific facts. In these sentences, the time is now or always and the situation is real and possible.

Examples
  • If you freeze water, it becomes a solid.
  • Plants die if they don’t get enough water.
  • If my husband has a cold, I usually catch it.
  • If public transport is efficient, people stop using their cars.
  • If you mix red and blue, you get purple.

The zero conditional is also often used to give instructions, using the imperative in the main clause.

Examples
  • If Bill phones, tell him to meet me at the cinema.
  • Ask Pete if you’re not sure what to do.
  • If you want to come, call me before 5:00.
  • Meet me here if we get separated.

ü  Type 1 Conditional

The type 1 conditional is used to refer to the present or future where the situation is real. The type 1 conditional refers to a possible condition and its probable result. In these sentences the if clause is in the simple present, and the main clause is in the simple future.

If clause Main clause
If + simple present simple future
If this thing happens that thing will happen.
If you don’t hurry you will miss the train.
If it rains today you will get wet.

o   Type 1 Conditional

Form

In a Type 1 conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the simple present, and the tense in the main clause is the simple future.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple present simple future
If this thing happens that thing will happen.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

Examples
  • If it rains, you will get wet.
  • You will get wet if it rains.
  • If Sally is late again I will be mad.
  • I will be mad if Sally is late again.
  • If you don’t hurry, you will miss the bus.
  • You will miss the bus if you don’t hurry.

Function

The type 1 conditional refers to a possible condition and its probable result. These sentences are based on facts, and they are used to make statements about the real world, and about particular situations. We often use such sentences to give warnings. In type 1 conditional sentences, the time is the present or future and the situation is real.

Examples
  • If I have time, I’ll finish that letter.
  • What will you do if you miss the plane?
  • Nobody will notice if you make a mistake.
  • If you drop that glass, it will break.
  • If you don’t drop the gun, I’ll shoot!
  • If you don’t leave, I’ll call the police.

In type 1 conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of the future tense to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.

Examples
  • If you drop that glass, it might break.
  • I may finish that letter if I have time.
  • If he calls you, you should go.
  • If you buy my school supplies for me, I will be able to go to the park.

ü  Type 2 Conditional

The type 2 conditional is used to refer to a time that is now or any time, and a situation that is unreal. These sentences are not based on fact. The type 2 conditional is used to refer to a hypothetical condition and its probable result. In type 2 conditional sentences, the if clause uses the simple past, and the main clause uses the present conditional.

If clause Main clause
If + simple past present conditional or present continuous conditional
If this thing happened that thing would happen. (but I’m not sure this thing will happen) OR
that thing would be happening.
If you went to bed earlier you would not be so tired.
If it rained you would get wet.
If I spoke Italian I would be working in Italy.

o   Type 2 Conditional

Form

In a Type 2 conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional or the present continuous conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple past present conditional or present continuous conditional
If this thing happened that thing would happen.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

Examples
  • If it rained, you would get wet.
  • You would get wet if it rained.
  • If you went to bed earlier you wouldn’t be so tired.
  • You wouldn’t be so tired if you went to bed earlier.
  • If she fell, she would hurt herself.
  • She would hurt herself if she fell.

Function

The type 2 conditional refers to an unlikely or hypothetical condition and its probable result. These sentences are not based on the actual situation. In type 2 conditional sentences, the time is now or any time and the situation is hypothetical.

Examples
  • If the weather wasn’t so bad, we would go to the park. (But the weather is bad so we can’t go.)
  • If I was the Queen of England, I would give everyone a chicken. (But I am not the Queen.)
  • If you really loved me, you would buy me a diamond ring.
  • If I knew where she lived, I would go and see her.

It is correct, and very common, to say “if I were” instead of “if I was” (subjunctive mood).

Examples
  • If I were taller, I would buy this dress.
  • If I were 20, I would travel the world.
  • If I were you, I would give up smoking.
  • If I were a plant, I would love the rain.

In type 2 conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of “would” to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.

Examples
  • We might buy a larger house if we had more money
  • He could go to the concert if you gave him your ticket.
  • If he called me, I couldn’t hear.

The present conditional tense

The present conditional of any verb is composed of two elements:
would + the infinitive of the main verb, without “to”

Subject + would + infinitive
He would go
They would stay
Affirmative Negative Interrogative Interrogative Negative
I would go I wouldn’t go Would I go? Wouldn’t I go?
You would go You wouldn’t go Would you go? Wouldn’t you go?
He would go He wouldn’t go Would he go? Wouldn’t he go?
She would go She wouldn’t go Would she go? Wouldn’t she go?
We would go We wouldn’t go Would we go? Wouldn’t we go?
They would go They wouldn’t go Would they go? Wouldn’t they go?

o   Present Continuous Conditional

Form

In type 2 conditional sentences, the continuous form of the present conditional may be used.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple past present continuous conditional
If this thing happened that thing would be happening.

Function

This form is common in type 2 conditional sentences. It expresses an unfinished or continuing action or situation, which is the probable result of an unreal condition.

Examples
  • I would be working in Italy if I spoke Italian. (But I don’t speak Italian, so I am not working in Italy)
  • She wouldn’t be living with Jack if she lived with her parents. (But she is living with Jack and not with her parents).
  • You wouldn’t be smiling if you knew the truth. (But you are smiling because you don’t know the truth.)

The present continuous conditional tense

The present continuous conditional tense of any verb is composed of three elements:
would + be + present participle
The present participle is formed by taking the base form of the verb and adding the -ing ending.

Subject + would + be + present participle
He would be staying
They would be going
To Live: Present Continuous Conditional
Affirmative Negative Interrogative Interrogative Negative
I would be living I wouldn’t be living Would I be living? Wouldn’t I be living?
You would be living You wouldn’t be living Would you be living? Wouldn’t you be living?
He would be living He wouldn’t be living Would he be living? Wouldn’t he be living?
She would be living She wouldn’t be living Would she be living? Wouldn’t she be living?
We would be living We wouldn’t be living Would we be living? Wouldn’t we be living?
They would be living They wouldn’t be living Would they be living? Wouldn’t they be living?

 

ü  Type 3 Conditional

The type 3 conditional is used to refer to a time that is in the past, and a situation that is contrary to reality. The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is expressed. The type 3 conditional is used to refer to an unreal past condition and its probable past result. In type 3 conditional sentences, the if clause uses the past perfect, and the main clause uses the perfect conditional.

If clause Main clause
If + past perfect perfect conditional or perfect continuous conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would have happened. (but neither of those things really happened) OR
that thing would have been happening.
If you had studied harder you would have passed the exam.
If it had rained you would have gotten wet.
If I had accepted that promotion I would have been working in Milan.

o   Type 3 Conditional

Form

In a Type 3 conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional or the perfect continuous conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + past perfect perfect conditional or perfect continuous conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would have happened.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

Examples
  • If it had rained, you would have gotten wet.
  • You would have gotten wet if it had rained.
  • You would have passed your exam if you had worked harder.
  • If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam.
  • I would have believed you if you hadn’t lied to me before.
  • If you hadn’t lied to me before, I would have believed you.

Function

The type 3 conditional refers to an impossible condition in the past and its probable result in the past. These sentences are truly hypothetical and unreal, because it is now too late for the condition or its result to exist. There is always some implication of regret with type 3 conditional sentences. The reality is the opposite of, or contrary to, what the sentence expresses. In type 3 conditional sentences, the time is the past and the situation is hypothetical.

Examples
  • If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam. (But I didn’t work hard, and I didn’t pass the exam.)
  • If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake. (But I didn’t know and I didn’t bake a cake.)
  • I would have been happy if you had called me on my birthday. (But you didn’t call me and I am not happy.)

In type 3 conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of “would” to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.

Examples
  • If I had worked harder I might have passed the exam.
  • You could have been on time if you had caught the bus.
  • If he called you, you could go.
  • If you bought my school supplies for me, I might be able to go to the park.
Contractions

Both would and had can be contracted to ‘d, which can be confusing if you are not confident with type 3 conditional sentences. Remember 2 rules:
1. would never appears in the if-clause so if ‘d appears in the if clause, it must be abbreviating had.
2. had never appears before have so if ‘d appears on a pronoun just before have, it must be abbreviating would.

Examples
  • If I’d known you were in hospital, I’d have visited you.
  • If I had known you were in hospital, I would have visited you.
  • I’d have bought you a present if I’d known it was your birthday.
  • I would have bought you a present if I had known it was your birthday.
  • If you’d given me your e-mail, I’d have written to you.
  • If you had given me your e-mail, I would have written to you.

The perfect conditional tense

The perfect conditional of any verb is composed of three elements:
would + have + past participle
Have followed by the past participle is used in other constructions as well. it is called the “perfect infinitive”.

Subject + would + have + past participle
He would have gone
They would have stayed
Affirmative Negative Interrogative Interrogative Negative
I would have gone I wouldn’t have gone Would I have gone? Wouldn’t I have gone?
You would have gone You wouldn’t have gone Would you have gone? Wouldn’t you have gone?
He would have gone He wouldn’t have gone Would he have gone? Wouldn’t he have gone?
She would have gone She wouldn’t have gone Would she have gone? Wouldn’t she have gone?
We would have gone We wouldn’t have gone Would we have gone? Wouldn’t we have gone?
They would have gone They wouldn’t have gone Would they have gone? Wouldn’t they have gone?

o   Perfect Continuous Conditional

Form

In type 3 conditional sentences, the perfect form of the present conditional may be used.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + past perfect perfect continuous conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would have been happening.

Function

The perfect continuous conditional can be used in type 3 conditional sentences. It refers to the unfulfilled result of the action in the if-clause, and expresses this result as an unfinished or continuous action.

Examples
  • If the weather had been better (but it wasn’t), I’d have been sitting in the garden when he arrived (but I wasn’t).
  • If she hadn’t got a job in London (but she did), she would have been working in Paris (but she wasn’t).
  • If I had had a ball I would have been playing football.
  • If I had known it was dangerous I wouldn’t have been climbing that cliff.

o    The perfect continuous conditional tense

The perfect continuous conditional tense of any verb is composed of four elements:
would + have + been + present participle
The present participle is formed by taking the base form of the verb and adding the -ing ending.

Subject + would + have + been + present participle
He would have been staying
They would have been going
To Work: Perfect Continuous Conditional
Affirmative Negative Interrogative Interrogative Negative
I would have been living I wouldn’t have been living Would I have been living? Wouldn’t I have been living?
You would have been living You wouldn’t have been living Would you have been living? Wouldn’t you have been living?
He would have been living He wouldn’t have been living Would he have been living? Wouldn’t he have been living?
She would have been living She wouldn’t have been living Would she have been living? Wouldn’t she have been living?
We would have been living We wouldn’t have been living Would we have been living? Wouldn’t we have been living?
They would have been living They wouldn’t have been living Would they have been living? Wouldn’t they have been living?

o    

ü  Mixed Type Conditional

The mixed type conditional is used to refer to a time that is in the past, and a situation that is ongoing into the present. The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is expressed. The mixed type conditional is used to refer to an unreal past condition and its probable result in the present. In mixed type conditional sentences, the if clause uses the past perfect, and the main clause uses the present conditional.

If clause Main clause
If + past perfect or simple past present conditional or perfect conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would happen. (but this thing didn’t happen so that thing isn’t happening)
If I had worked harder at school I would have a better job now.
If we had looked at the map we wouldn’t be lost.
If you weren’t afraid of spiders you would have picked it up and put it outside.

o   Mixed Conditional

It is possible for the two parts of a conditional sentence to refer to different times, and the resulting sentence is a “mixed conditional” sentence. There are two types of mixed conditional sentence.

Present result of a past condition

Form

In this type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + past perfect present conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would happen.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

Examples
  • If I had worked harder at school, I would have a better job now.
  • I would have a better job now if I had worked harder at school.
  • If we had looked at the map we wouldn’t be lost.
  • We wouldn’t be lost if we had looked at the map.
  • If you had caught that plane you would be dead now.
  • You would be dead now if you had caught that plane.
Function

This type of mixed conditional refers to an unreal past condition and its probable result in the present. These sentences express a situation which is contrary to reality both in the past and in the present. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time is the past in the “if” clause and in the present in the main clause.

Examples
  • If I had studied I would have my driving license. (but I didn’t study and now I don’t have my license)
  • I would be a millionaire now if I had taken that job. (but I didn’t take the job and I’m not a millionaire)
  • If you had spent all your money, you wouldn’t buy this jacket. (but you didn’t spend all your money and now you can buy this jacket)

In these mixed conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of would to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.

Examples
  • If you had crashed the car, you might be in trouble.
  • I could be a millionaire now if I had invested in ABC Plumbing.
  • If I had learned to ski, I might be on the slopes right now.

o   Past result of present or continuing condition

Form

In this second type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple past perfect conditional
If this thing happened that thing would have happened.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

Examples
  • If I wasn’t afraid of spiders, I would have picked it up.
  • I would have picked it up if I wasn’t afraid of spiders.
  • If we didn’t trust him we would have sacked him months ago.
  • We would have sacked him months ago if we didn’t trust him.
  • If I wasn’t in the middle of another meeting, I would have been happy to help you.
  • I would have been happy to help you if I wasn’t in the middle of another meeting.
Function

These mixed conditional sentences refer to an unreal present situation and its probable (but unreal) pas result. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time in the if clause is now or always and the time in the main clause is before now. For example, “If I wasn’t afraid of spiders” is contrary to present reality. I am afraid of spiders. “I would have picked it up” is contrary to past reality. I didn’t pick it up.

Examples
  • If she wasn’t afraid of flying she wouldn’t have travelled by boat.
  • I’d have been able to translate the letter if my Italian was better.
  • If I was a good cook, I’d have invited them to lunch.
  • If the elephant wasn’t in love with the mouse, she’d have trodden on him by now.

* We can substitute could or might for would (should, may or must are sometimes possible, too).

  • I would pass the exam.
  • I could pass the exam.
  • I might pass the exam.
  • I may pass the exam.
  • I should pass the exam.
  • I must pass the exam.

Exceptions

Sometimes Conditional Sentences Type I, II and III can also be used with other tenses. So far you have only learned the basic rules for Conditional Sentences. It depends on the context, however, which tense to use. So sometimes it’s possible for example that in an IF Clause Type I another tense than Simple Present is used, e.g. Present Progressive or Present Perfect.

 

 

 

 

 

Conditional Sentences Type I (likely)

Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
future action Simple Present If the book is interesting, … Future I …I will buy it.
Imperative …buy it.
Modal Auxiliary …you can buy it.
action going on now Present Progressive If he is snoring, … Future I …I will wake him up.
Imperative …wake him up.
Modal Auxiliary …you can wake him up.
finished action Present Perfect If he has moved into his new flat, … Future I …we will visit him.
Imperative …visit him.
Modal Auxiliary …we can visit him.
improbable action should + Infinitive If she should win this race, … Future I …I will congratulate her.
Imperative …congratulate her.
Modal Auxiliary …we can congratulate her.
present facts Simple Present If he gets what he wants, … Simple Present …he is very nice.

Conditional Sentences Type II (unlikely)

Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
present / future event Simple Past If I had a lot of money, … Conditional I …I would travel around the world.
consequence in the past Simple Past If I knew him, … Conditional II …I would have said hello.
Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
present Past Perfect If I had known it, … Conditional I …I would not be here now.
past Past Perfect If he had learned for the test, … Conditional II …he would not have failed it.

 

 

Conditional Sentences Type II (impossible)

 

 

SCROLL DOWN FOR THE EXERCISES

Top of Form

  1. If it doesn’t rain, we (can / go) swimming tomorrow.
  2. If you train hard, you (might / win) first prize.
  3. If we go to Canada next year, we (can / improve) our English.
  4. I (may / go) to the disco in the evening if I do the washing-up now.
  5. If we go on holiday next week, I (not / can / play) tennis with you.
  6. If you see Gareth tomorrow, you (should / tell) him that you love him.
  7. If my parents go shopping in the afternoon, I (must / look) after my little sister.
  8. He (must / be) a good drummer if he plays in a band.
  9. If you are listening to the radio after 10 pm, you (should / turn) the volume down.
  10. If you like that shirt, you (can / have) it.
  11. I am trying to reach Sue on the phone now, but I’m afraid she is not there because …
    If she (be) at the office, she (answer) the phone.
  12. A couple of minutes ago, I tried to reach Sue on the phone, but I’m afraid she is not there because …
    If she (be) at the office, she (answer) the phone.
  13. I want to ring a friend now, but I don’t know his phone number.
    If I (know) his phone number, I (ring) him.
  14. A week ago, I wanted to ring a friend, but I don’t know his phone number.
    If I (know) his phone number, I (ring) him.
  15. A friend tells me what she is planning to do. I don’t think what she is planning is a good idea.
    If I (be) you, I (do / not) this.
  16. A friend tells me what she did. I don’t think what she did was a good idea.
    If I (be) you, I (do / not) this.
  17. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I’m seeing her in town tonight.
    If Sarah (be) in Italy, I (see / not) her in town tonight.
  18. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I saw her in town last night.
    If Sarah (be) in Italy, I (see / not) her in town last night.
  19. My brother feels like he is getting the flu. I tell him …
    You (get / not) the flu if you (eat) more fruit.
  20. A few weeks ago, my brother had the flu. I tell him …
    You (get / not) the flu if you (eat) more fruit.

 

AND SCROLL DOWN FOR THE ANSWER 😀

  1. If it doesn’t rain, we can go swimming tomorrow.
  2. If you train hard, you might win first prize.
  3. If we go to Canada next year, we can improve our English.
  4. I may go to the disco in the evening if I do the washing-up now.
  5. If we go on holiday next week, I cannot play tennis with you.
  6. If you see Gareth tomorrow, you should tell him that you love him.
  7. If my parents go shopping in the afternoon, I must look after my little sister.
  8. He must be a good drummer if he plays in a band.
  9. If you are listening to the radio after 10 pm, you should turn the volume down.
  10. If you like that shirt, you can have it.
  11. I am trying to reach Sue on the phone now, but I’m afraid she is not there because …
    If she were at the office, she would answer the phone.
  12. A couple of minutes ago, I tried to reach Sue on the phone, but I’m afraid she is not there because …
    If she were at the office, she would have answered the phone.
  13. I want to ring a friend now, but I don’t know his phone number.
    If I knew his phone number, I would ring him.
  14. A week ago, I wanted to ring a friend, but I don’t know his phone number.
    If I knew his phone number, I would have rung him.
  15. A friend tells me what she is planning to do. I don’t think what she is planning is a good idea.
    If I were you, I would not do this.
  16. A friend tells me what she did. I don’t think what she did was a good idea.
    If I were you, I would not have done this.
  17. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I’m seeing her in town tonight.
    If Sarah were in Italy, I would not see her in town tonight.
  18. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I saw her in town last night.
    If Sarah were in Italy, I would not have seen her in town last night.
  19. My brother feels like he is getting the flu. I tell him …
    You would not get the flu if you ate more fruit.
  20. A few weeks ago, my brother had the flu. I tell him …
    You would not have got the flu if you ate more fruit.

Retrieve on Sunday, November 9, 2015

http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/if.htm

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/exceptions

http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/conditional/

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences

http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/type-3-conditional/

http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/perfect-continuous-conditional/

http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/type-1-conditional/

http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/type-2-conditional/

http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/present-continuous-conditional/

http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/mixed-conditional/

http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/zero-conditional/

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/type-1/exercises

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/type-2/exercises

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/type-3/exercises

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/exercises?04

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/exceptions/exercises

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/exceptions/exercises?04

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/exceptions/exercises?05

Conditional sentences: if-clauses type I, II, III, Zero Conditional, Mixed Type Conditional.

Conditional sentences
Conditional sentences are sometimes confusing for learners of English as a second language. Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are used to express that the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled. There are three types of Conditional Sentences. Conditional tenses are used to speculate about what could happen, what might have happened, and what we wish would happen. In English, most sentences using the conditional contain the word if. Many conditional forms in English are used in sentences that include verbs in one of the past tenses. This usage is referred to as “the unreal past” because we use a past tense but we are not actually referring to something that happened in the past.
Watch out:
1. Which type of conditional sentences is it?
2. Where is the if-clause (e.g. at the beginning or at the end of the conditional sentence)?

There are three types of conditional sentences.
type condition
I condition possible to fulfill
II It is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled.
III condition not possible to fulfill (too late)
1. Form
type if-clause main clause
I Simple Present will-future or (Modal + infinitive)
II Simple Past would + infinitive *
III Past Perfect would + have + past participle *
2. Examples (if-clause at the beginning)
type if clause main clause
I If I study, I will pass the exam.
II If I studied, I would pass the exam.
III If I had studied, I would have passed the exam.
3. Examples (if-clause at the end)
type main clause if-clause
I I will pass the exam if I study.
II I would pass the exam if I studied.
III I would have passed the exam if I had studied.
4. Examples (affirmative and negative sentences)
type Examples
long forms short/contracted forms
I + If I study, I will pass the exam. If I study, I’ll pass the exam.
– If I study, I will not fail the exam.
If I do not study, I will fail the exam. If I study, I won’t fail the exam.
If I don’t study, I’ll fail the exam.
II
+
If I studied, I would pass the exam.
If I studied, I’d pass the exam.
– If I studied, I would not fail the exam.
If I did not study, I would fail the exam. If I studied, I wouldn’t fail the exam.
If I didn’t study, I’d fail the exam.
III

+

If I had studied, I would have passed the exam.

If I’d studied, I’d have passed the exam.
– If I had studied, I would not have failed the exam.
If I had not studied, I would have failed the exam. If I’d studied, I wouldn’t have failed the exam.
If I hadn’t studied, I’d have failed the exam.

There is another types of Conditional Sentences, here they are :
Conditional sentence type Usage If clause verb tense Main clause verb tense
Zero General truths Simple present Simple present
Type 1 A possible condition and its probable result Simple present Simple future
Type 2 A hypothetical condition and its probable result Simple past Present conditional or Present continuous conditional
Type 3 An unreal past condition and its probable result in the past Past perfect Perfect conditional
Mixed type An unreal past condition and its probable result in the present Past perfect Present contditional
 Type Zero Conditional
The zero conditional is used for when the time being referred to is now or always and the situation is real and possible. The zero conditional is often used to refer to general truths. The tense in both parts of the sentence is the simple present. In zero conditional sentences, the word “if” can usually be replaced by the word “when” without changing the meaning.
If clause Main clause
If + simple present simple present
If this thing happens that thing happens.
If you heat ice it melts.
If it rains the grass gets wet.
o Zero Conditional
Form
In zero conditional sentences, the tense in both parts of the sentence is the simple present.
If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple present simple present
If this thing happens that thing happens.
As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical. In zero conditional sentences, you can replace “if” with “when”, because both express general truths. The meaning will be unchanged.
Examples
• If you heat ice, it melts.
• Ice melts if you heat it.
• When you heat ice, it melts.
• Ice melts when you heat it.
• If it rains, the grass gets wet.
• The grass gets wet if it rains.
• When it rains, the grass gets wet.
• The grass gets wet when it rains.
Function
The zero conditional is used to make statements about the real world, and often refers to general truths, such as scientific facts. In these sentences, the time is now or always and the situation is real and possible.
Examples
• If you freeze water, it becomes a solid.
• Plants die if they don’t get enough water.
• If my husband has a cold, I usually catch it.
• If public transport is efficient, people stop using their cars.
• If you mix red and blue, you get purple.
The zero conditional is also often used to give instructions, using the imperative in the main clause.
Examples
• If Bill phones, tell him to meet me at the cinema.
• Ask Pete if you’re not sure what to do.
• If you want to come, call me before 5:00.
• Meet me here if we get separated.
 Type 1 Conditional
The type 1 conditional is used to refer to the present or future where the situation is real. The type 1 conditional refers to a possible condition and its probable result. In these sentences the if clause is in the simple present, and the main clause is in the simple future.
If clause Main clause
If + simple present simple future
If this thing happens that thing will happen.
If you don’t hurry you will miss the train.
If it rains today you will get wet.
o Type 1 Conditional
Form
In a Type 1 conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the simple present, and the tense in the main clause is the simple future.
If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple present simple future
If this thing happens that thing will happen.
As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.
Examples
• If it rains, you will get wet.
• You will get wet if it rains.
• If Sally is late again I will be mad.
• I will be mad if Sally is late again.
• If you don’t hurry, you will miss the bus.
• You will miss the bus if you don’t hurry.
Function
The type 1 conditional refers to a possible condition and its probable result. These sentences are based on facts, and they are used to make statements about the real world, and about particular situations. We often use such sentences to give warnings. In type 1 conditional sentences, the time is the present or future and the situation is real.
Examples
• If I have time, I’ll finish that letter.
• What will you do if you miss the plane?
• Nobody will notice if you make a mistake.
• If you drop that glass, it will break.
• If you don’t drop the gun, I’ll shoot!
• If you don’t leave, I’ll call the police.
In type 1 conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of the future tense to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.
Examples
• If you drop that glass, it might break.
• I may finish that letter if I have time.
• If he calls you, you should go.
• If you buy my school supplies for me, I will be able to go to the park.
 Type 2 Conditional
The type 2 conditional is used to refer to a time that is now or any time, and a situation that is unreal. These sentences are not based on fact. The type 2 conditional is used to refer to a hypothetical condition and its probable result. In type 2 conditional sentences, the if clause uses the simple past, and the main clause uses the present conditional.
If clause Main clause
If + simple past present conditional or present continuous conditional
If this thing happened that thing would happen. (but I’m not sure this thing will happen) OR
that thing would be happening.
If you went to bed earlier you would not be so tired.
If it rained you would get wet.
If I spoke Italian I would be working in Italy.
o Type 2 Conditional
Form
In a Type 2 conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional or the present continuous conditional.
If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple past present conditional or present continuous conditional
If this thing happened that thing would happen.
As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.
Examples
• If it rained, you would get wet.
• You would get wet if it rained.
• If you went to bed earlier you wouldn’t be so tired.
• You wouldn’t be so tired if you went to bed earlier.
• If she fell, she would hurt herself.
• She would hurt herself if she fell.
Function
The type 2 conditional refers to an unlikely or hypothetical condition and its probable result. These sentences are not based on the actual situation. In type 2 conditional sentences, the time is now or any time and the situation is hypothetical.
Examples
• If the weather wasn’t so bad, we would go to the park. (But the weather is bad so we can’t go.)
• If I was the Queen of England, I would give everyone a chicken. (But I am not the Queen.)
• If you really loved me, you would buy me a diamond ring.
• If I knew where she lived, I would go and see her.
It is correct, and very common, to say “if I were” instead of “if I was” (subjunctive mood).
Examples
• If I were taller, I would buy this dress.
• If I were 20, I would travel the world.
• If I were you, I would give up smoking.
• If I were a plant, I would love the rain.
In type 2 conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of “would” to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.
Examples
• We might buy a larger house if we had more money
• He could go to the concert if you gave him your ticket.
• If he called me, I couldn’t hear.
The present conditional tense
The present conditional of any verb is composed of two elements:
would + the infinitive of the main verb, without “to”
Subject + would + infinitive
He would go
They would stay
Affirmative Negative Interrogative Interrogative Negative
I would go I wouldn’t go Would I go? Wouldn’t I go?
You would go You wouldn’t go Would you go? Wouldn’t you go?
He would go He wouldn’t go Would he go? Wouldn’t he go?
She would go She wouldn’t go Would she go? Wouldn’t she go?
We would go We wouldn’t go Would we go? Wouldn’t we go?
They would go They wouldn’t go Would they go? Wouldn’t they go?
o Present Continuous Conditional
Form
In type 2 conditional sentences, the continuous form of the present conditional may be used.
If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple past present continuous conditional
If this thing happened that thing would be happening.
Function
This form is common in type 2 conditional sentences. It expresses an unfinished or continuing action or situation, which is the probable result of an unreal condition.
Examples
• I would be working in Italy if I spoke Italian. (But I don’t speak Italian, so I am not working in Italy)
• She wouldn’t be living with Jack if she lived with her parents. (But she is living with Jack and not with her parents).
• You wouldn’t be smiling if you knew the truth. (But you are smiling because you don’t know the truth.)
The present continuous conditional tense
The present continuous conditional tense of any verb is composed of three elements:
would + be + present participle
The present participle is formed by taking the base form of the verb and adding the -ing ending.
Subject + would + be + present participle
He would be staying
They would be going
To Live: Present Continuous Conditional
Affirmative Negative Interrogative Interrogative Negative
I would be living I wouldn’t be living Would I be living? Wouldn’t I be living?
You would be living You wouldn’t be living Would you be living? Wouldn’t you be living?
He would be living He wouldn’t be living Would he be living? Wouldn’t he be living?
She would be living She wouldn’t be living Would she be living? Wouldn’t she be living?
We would be living We wouldn’t be living Would we be living? Wouldn’t we be living?
They would be living They wouldn’t be living Would they be living? Wouldn’t they be living?

 Type 3 Conditional
The type 3 conditional is used to refer to a time that is in the past, and a situation that is contrary to reality. The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is expressed. The type 3 conditional is used to refer to an unreal past condition and its probable past result. In type 3 conditional sentences, the if clause uses the past perfect, and the main clause uses the perfect conditional.
If clause Main clause
If + past perfect perfect conditional or perfect continuous conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would have happened. (but neither of those things really happened) OR
that thing would have been happening.
If you had studied harder you would have passed the exam.
If it had rained you would have gotten wet.
If I had accepted that promotion I would have been working in Milan.
o Type 3 Conditional
Form
In a Type 3 conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional or the perfect continuous conditional.
If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + past perfect perfect conditional or perfect continuous conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would have happened.
As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.
Examples
• If it had rained, you would have gotten wet.
• You would have gotten wet if it had rained.
• You would have passed your exam if you had worked harder.
• If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam.
• I would have believed you if you hadn’t lied to me before.
• If you hadn’t lied to me before, I would have believed you.
Function
The type 3 conditional refers to an impossible condition in the past and its probable result in the past. These sentences are truly hypothetical and unreal, because it is now too late for the condition or its result to exist. There is always some implication of regret with type 3 conditional sentences. The reality is the opposite of, or contrary to, what the sentence expresses. In type 3 conditional sentences, the time is the past and the situation is hypothetical.
Examples
• If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam. (But I didn’t work hard, and I didn’t pass the exam.)
• If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake. (But I didn’t know and I didn’t bake a cake.)
• I would have been happy if you had called me on my birthday. (But you didn’t call me and I am not happy.)
In type 3 conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of “would” to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.
Examples
• If I had worked harder I might have passed the exam.
• You could have been on time if you had caught the bus.
• If he called you, you could go.
• If you bought my school supplies for me, I might be able to go to the park.
Contractions
Both would and had can be contracted to ‘d, which can be confusing if you are not confident with type 3 conditional sentences. Remember 2 rules:
1. would never appears in the if-clause so if ‘d appears in the if clause, it must be abbreviating had.
2. had never appears before have so if ‘d appears on a pronoun just before have, it must be abbreviating would.
Examples
• If I’d known you were in hospital, I’d have visited you.
• If I had known you were in hospital, I would have visited you.
• I’d have bought you a present if I’d known it was your birthday.
• I would have bought you a present if I had known it was your birthday.
• If you’d given me your e-mail, I’d have written to you.
• If you had given me your e-mail, I would have written to you.
The perfect conditional tense
The perfect conditional of any verb is composed of three elements:
would + have + past participle
Have followed by the past participle is used in other constructions as well. it is called the “perfect infinitive”.
Subject + would + have + past participle
He would have gone
They would have stayed

Affirmative Negative Interrogative Interrogative Negative
I would have gone I wouldn’t have gone Would I have gone? Wouldn’t I have gone?
You would have gone You wouldn’t have gone Would you have gone? Wouldn’t you have gone?
He would have gone He wouldn’t have gone Would he have gone? Wouldn’t he have gone?
She would have gone She wouldn’t have gone Would she have gone? Wouldn’t she have gone?
We would have gone We wouldn’t have gone Would we have gone? Wouldn’t we have gone?
They would have gone They wouldn’t have gone Would they have gone? Wouldn’t they have gone?
o Perfect Continuous Conditional
Form
In type 3 conditional sentences, the perfect form of the present conditional may be used.
If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + past perfect perfect continuous conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would have been happening.
Function
The perfect continuous conditional can be used in type 3 conditional sentences. It refers to the unfulfilled result of the action in the if-clause, and expresses this result as an unfinished or continuous action.
Examples
• If the weather had been better (but it wasn’t), I’d have been sitting in the garden when he arrived (but I wasn’t).
• If she hadn’t got a job in London (but she did), she would have been working in Paris (but she wasn’t).
• If I had had a ball I would have been playing football.
• If I had known it was dangerous I wouldn’t have been climbing that cliff.
o The perfect continuous conditional tense
The perfect continuous conditional tense of any verb is composed of four elements:
would + have + been + present participle
The present participle is formed by taking the base form of the verb and adding the -ing ending.
Subject + would + have + been + present participle
He would have been staying
They would have been going
To Work: Perfect Continuous Conditional
Affirmative Negative Interrogative Interrogative Negative
I would have been living I wouldn’t have been living Would I have been living? Wouldn’t I have been living?
You would have been living You wouldn’t have been living Would you have been living? Wouldn’t you have been living?
He would have been living He wouldn’t have been living Would he have been living? Wouldn’t he have been living?
She would have been living She wouldn’t have been living Would she have been living? Wouldn’t she have been living?
We would have been living We wouldn’t have been living Would we have been living? Wouldn’t we have been living?
They would have been living They wouldn’t have been living Would they have been living? Wouldn’t they have been living?
o
 Mixed Type Conditional
The mixed type conditional is used to refer to a time that is in the past, and a situation that is ongoing into the present. The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is expressed. The mixed type conditional is used to refer to an unreal past condition and its probable result in the present. In mixed type conditional sentences, the if clause uses the past perfect, and the main clause uses the present conditional.
If clause Main clause
If + past perfect or simple past present conditional or perfect conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would happen. (but this thing didn’t happen so that thing isn’t happening)
If I had worked harder at school I would have a better job now.
If we had looked at the map we wouldn’t be lost.
If you weren’t afraid of spiders you would have picked it up and put it outside.
o Mixed Conditional
It is possible for the two parts of a conditional sentence to refer to different times, and the resulting sentence is a “mixed conditional” sentence. There are two types of mixed conditional sentence.
Present result of a past condition
Form
In this type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional.
If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + past perfect present conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would happen.
As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.
Examples
• If I had worked harder at school, I would have a better job now.
• I would have a better job now if I had worked harder at school.
• If we had looked at the map we wouldn’t be lost.
• We wouldn’t be lost if we had looked at the map.
• If you had caught that plane you would be dead now.
• You would be dead now if you had caught that plane.
Function
This type of mixed conditional refers to an unreal past condition and its probable result in the present. These sentences express a situation which is contrary to reality both in the past and in the present. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time is the past in the “if” clause and in the present in the main clause.
Examples
• If I had studied I would have my driving license. (but I didn’t study and now I don’t have my license)
• I would be a millionaire now if I had taken that job. (but I didn’t take the job and I’m not a millionaire)
• If you had spent all your money, you wouldn’t buy this jacket. (but you didn’t spend all your money and now you can buy this jacket)
In these mixed conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of would to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.
Examples
• If you had crashed the car, you might be in trouble.
• I could be a millionaire now if I had invested in ABC Plumbing.
• If I had learned to ski, I might be on the slopes right now.
o Past result of present or continuing condition
Form
In this second type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional.
If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple past perfect conditional
If this thing happened that thing would have happened.
As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.
Examples
• If I wasn’t afraid of spiders, I would have picked it up.
• I would have picked it up if I wasn’t afraid of spiders.
• If we didn’t trust him we would have sacked him months ago.
• We would have sacked him months ago if we didn’t trust him.
• If I wasn’t in the middle of another meeting, I would have been happy to help you.
• I would have been happy to help you if I wasn’t in the middle of another meeting.
Function
These mixed conditional sentences refer to an unreal present situation and its probable (but unreal) pas result. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time in the if clause is now or always and the time in the main clause is before now. For example, “If I wasn’t afraid of spiders” is contrary to present reality. I am afraid of spiders. “I would have picked it up” is contrary to past reality. I didn’t pick it up.
Examples
• If she wasn’t afraid of flying she wouldn’t have travelled by boat.
• I’d have been able to translate the letter if my Italian was better.
• If I was a good cook, I’d have invited them to lunch.
• If the elephant wasn’t in love with the mouse, she’d have trodden on him by now.
* We can substitute could or might for would (should, may or must are sometimes possible, too).
• I would pass the exam.
• I could pass the exam.
• I might pass the exam.
• I may pass the exam.
• I should pass the exam.
• I must pass the exam.
Exceptions
Sometimes Conditional Sentences Type I, II and III can also be used with other tenses. So far you have only learned the basic rules for Conditional Sentences. It depends on the context, however, which tense to use. So sometimes it’s possible for example that in an IF Clause Type I another tense than Simple Present is used, e.g. Present Progressive or Present Perfect.

Conditional Sentences Type I (likely)
Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
future action Simple Present If the book is interesting, … Future I …I will buy it.
Imperative …buy it.
Modal Auxiliary …you can buy it.
action going on now Present Progressive If he is snoring, … Future I …I will wake him up.
Imperative …wake him up.
Modal Auxiliary …you can wake him up.
finished action Present Perfect If he has moved into his new flat, … Future I …we will visit him.
Imperative …visit him.
Modal Auxiliary …we can visit him.
improbable action should + Infinitive If she should win this race, … Future I …I will congratulate her.
Imperative …congratulate her.
Modal Auxiliary …we can congratulate her.
present facts Simple Present If he gets what he wants, … Simple Present …he is very nice.
Conditional Sentences Type II (unlikely)
Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
present / future event Simple Past If I had a lot of money, … Conditional I …I would travel around the world.
consequence in the past Simple Past If I knew him, … Conditional II …I would have said hello.
Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
present Past Perfect If I had known it, … Conditional I …I would not be here now.
past Past Perfect If he had learned for the test, … Conditional II …he would not have failed it.

Conditional Sentences Type II (impossible)

SCROLL DOWN FOR THE EXERCISES
1. If it doesn’t rain, we (can / go) swimming tomorrow.
2. If you train hard, you (might / win) first prize.
3. If we go to Canada next year, we (can / improve) our English.
4. I (may / go) to the disco in the evening if I do the washing-up now.
5. If we go on holiday next week, I (not / can / play) tennis with you.
6. If you see Gareth tomorrow, you (should / tell) him that you love him.
7. If my parents go shopping in the afternoon, I (must / look) after my little sister.
8. He (must / be) a good drummer if he plays in a band.
9. If you are listening to the radio after 10 pm, you (should / turn) the volume down.
10. If you like that shirt, you (can / have) it.
11. I am trying to reach Sue on the phone now, but I’m afraid she is not there because …
If she (be) at the office, she (answer) the phone.
12. A couple of minutes ago, I tried to reach Sue on the phone, but I’m afraid she is not there because …
If she (be) at the office, she (answer) the phone.
13. I want to ring a friend now, but I don’t know his phone number.
If I (know) his phone number, I (ring) him.
14. A week ago, I wanted to ring a friend, but I don’t know his phone number.
If I (know) his phone number, I (ring) him.
15. A friend tells me what she is planning to do. I don’t think what she is planning is a good idea.
If I (be) you, I (do / not) this.
16. A friend tells me what she did. I don’t think what she did was a good idea.
If I (be) you, I (do / not) this.
17. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I’m seeing her in town tonight.
If Sarah (be) in Italy, I (see / not) her in town tonight.
18. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I saw her in town last night.
If Sarah (be) in Italy, I (see / not) her in town last night.
19. My brother feels like he is getting the flu. I tell him …
You (get / not) the flu if you (eat) more fruit.
20. A few weeks ago, my brother had the flu. I tell him …
You (get / not) the flu if you (eat) more fruit.

AND SCROLL DOWN FOR THE ANSWER 😀
1. If it doesn’t rain, we can go swimming tomorrow.
2. If you train hard, you might win first prize.
3. If we go to Canada next year, we can improve our English.
4. I may go to the disco in the evening if I do the washing-up now.
5. If we go on holiday next week, I cannot play tennis with you.
6. If you see Gareth tomorrow, you should tell him that you love him.
7. If my parents go shopping in the afternoon, I must look after my little sister.
8. He must be a good drummer if he plays in a band.
9. If you are listening to the radio after 10 pm, you should turn the volume down.
10. If you like that shirt, you can have it.
11. I am trying to reach Sue on the phone now, but I’m afraid she is not there because …
If she were at the office, she would answer the phone.
12. A couple of minutes ago, I tried to reach Sue on the phone, but I’m afraid she is not there because …
If she were at the office, she would have answered the phone.
13. I want to ring a friend now, but I don’t know his phone number.
If I knew his phone number, I would ring him.
14. A week ago, I wanted to ring a friend, but I don’t know his phone number.
If I knew his phone number, I would have rung him.
15. A friend tells me what she is planning to do. I don’t think what she is planning is a good idea.
If I were you, I would not do this.
16. A friend tells me what she did. I don’t think what she did was a good idea.
If I were you, I would not have done this.
17. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I’m seeing her in town tonight.
If Sarah were in Italy, I would not see her in town tonight.
18. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I saw her in town last night.
If Sarah were in Italy, I would not have seen her in town last night.
19. My brother feels like he is getting the flu. I tell him …
You would not get the flu if you ate more fruit.
20. A few weeks ago, my brother had the flu. I tell him …
You would not have got the flu if you ate more fruit.
Retrieve on Sunday, November 9, 2015
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/if.htm
https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/exceptions
http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/conditional/
https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences
http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/type-3-conditional/
http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/perfect-continuous-conditional/
http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/type-1-conditional/
http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/type-2-conditional/
http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/present-continuous-conditional/
http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/mixed-conditional/
http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/zero-conditional/
https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/type-1/exercises
https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/type-2/exercises
https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/type-3/exercises
https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/exercises?04
https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/exceptions/exercises
https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/exceptions/exercises?04
https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/exceptions/exercises?05

TUGAS 1 ACTIVE VOICE AND PASSIVE VOICE #SOFTSKILL

VINNY AULIA 17612600 4SA05 SOFTSKILL

Active Voice

Active voice is used to indicate the grammatical subject of the verb is performing the action or causing the happening denoted by the verb. With the active voice, you learn ‘who’ or ‘what’ is responsible for the action at the beginning of the sentence. In other words, the subject performs the action denoted by the verb. With help of active voice more powerful sentences can be build than passive voice.

In active voice, the subject performs the action expressed by the verb:

  • The student wrote a song.

Use of active voice:

  1. Active voice is used in a clause whose subject expresses the agent of the main verb.
  2. Subject can be easily identified by asking ‘who’ or ‘what’ to the verb.
  3. Sentences are short and easily understandable.

Example : John wrote the letter.
-John (subject) performs the action denoted by the verb (write).

Passive Voice

In passive voice, the subject receives the action expressed by the verb:

  • A song was written by the student.

If someone use passive voice, it means they want to focus more on the object. Passive voice focuses on who or what is receiving the action and not on who or what is performing the action. The actors, in passive voice, are told at the end of the sentences or maybe even unknown.

Example : The letter was written by John.
– letter receives the action denoted by the write (verb).

Use of passive voice:

  1. It is used if we don‘t need to know or don‘t know the actor performing the job.
    1. The professor was hit by three snowballs.
  1. We use passive voice if we want to know more about  the job than the actors.
    1. A love letter was slipped under the door.
    2. The signs will be posted.
  2. Avoid calling attention to the performer of the action (known as the “institutional passive”):
    1. The fines will be collected on Monday.
  3. Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the action.
    1. Example: My bike was stolen.

Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows:

Example: A mistake was made. In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made a mistake.).

Rules for Active to Passive conversion
Tense Active voice Passive voice
Simple Present Tense Subject + infinitive + object

E.g.  The grocer sells fresh vegetables.

S + to be + past participle + by object

E.g.  Fresh vegetables are sold by the grocer.

Present Continuous Tense Subject + to be (is, am, are) being + present participle + object

E.g.  My boss is giving many assignments.

S + to be (is, am, are) + being + past participle + by object

E.g.  Many assignments are being given by my boss.

Present Perfect Tense Subject + has/have + past participle + object

E.g.   I have taken him out.

S + have/has been + past participle + by object

E.g.  He has been taken out by me.

Simple Past Tense Subject + past participle + object

E.g.  He built a large house.

S + was/were + past participle + by object

E.g.  A large house was built by him.

Past Continuous Tense S + was/were + being + past participle + object

E.g  She was cooking dinner.

S + was/were + being + past participle +by object

E.g.  Dinner was being cooked by her.

Past Perfect Tense Subject + had + past participle + object

E.g.  She had posted the letter.

S + had been + past participle + by object

E.g.  The letter had been posted by her.

Simple Future Tense Subject + will + infinitive + object

E.g.  I will give you a present.

S + will + be + past participle + by object

E.g.  A present will be given to you by me.

Future Perfect Tense Subject + would + infinitive + object

E.g.  The doctor shall have examined ten patients by 10 O’clock.

S + would + be + past participle + by object

E.g.  Ten patients will have been examined by 10 O’clock by the doctor.

Forming Tenses of Passive Verbs

The passive voice always consists of parts: Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle

Example: A letter was writte

 

Tense

Passive voice form
Present it is cleaned
Past it was cleaned
Future it will be cleaned
Present perfect it has been cleaned
Past perfect it had been cleaned
Future perfect it will have been cleaned

When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:

  • the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
  • the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
  • the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

Hints for Identifying the Passive Voice

Ask who/what performed the action(verb)? — if the ‘who or what is at the beginning of the sentence, the sentence is active voice.

Example : Jack is eating the apple.

Question will be : Who is eating the apple?  
Look for the word “by”, if present it is passive voice.

An active verb may or may not have a direct object, but the passive verb almost never does.

  • “It is…That” construction (It is clear that… It is noted…)

Use of the verbs To Be, Make, or Have

  • Passive: Your exits should be made quickly.
  • Active: Leave quickly.

Endings that turn verbs into abstract nouns: -ion,-ing,-ment:

  • Passive: When application of force is used, the lid will open.
  • Active: Apply force to open the lid.

In a sentence using active voice, the subject of the sentence performs the action expressed in the verb.

Examples of Passive

Tense Subject Verb Object
Simple Present Active: Rita writes a letter.
Passive: A letter is written by Rita.
Simple Past Active: Rita wrote a letter.
Passive: A letter was written by Rita.
Present Perfect Active: Rita has written a letter.
Passive: A letter has been written by Rita.
Future I Active: Rita will write a letter.
Passive: A letter will be written by Rita.

Example of Passive

Tense Subject Verb Object
Present Progressive Active: Rita is writing a letter.
Passive: A letter is being written by Rita.
Past Progressive Active: Rita was writing a letter.
Passive: A letter was being written by Rita.
Past Perfect Active: Rita had written a letter.
Passive: A letter had been written by Rita.
Future II Active: Rita will have written a letter.
Passive: A letter will have been written by Rita.
Conditional I Active: Rita would write a letter.
Passive: A letter would be written by Rita.
Conditional II Active: Rita would have written a letter.
Passive: A letter would have been written by Rita.

Passive Sentences with Two Objects

Rewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice means that one of the two objects becomes the subject, the other one remains an object. Which object to transform into a subject depends on what you want to put the focus on.

  Subject Verb Object 1 Object 2
Active: Rita Wrote a letter to me.
Passive: A letter was written to me by Rita.
Passive: I was written a letter by Rita.

Personal and Impersonal Passive

Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an object (transitive verb) can form a personal passive.

Example: They build houses. – Houses are built.

Verbs without an object (intransitive verb) normally cannot form a personal passive sentence (as there is no object that can become the subject of the passive sentence). If you want to use an intransitive verb in passive voice, you need an impersonal construction – therefore this passive is called Impersonal Passive.

Example: he says – it is said

Impersonal Passive is not as common in English as in some other languages (e.g. German, Latin). In English, Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs of perception (e. g. say, think, know).

Example: They say that women live longer than men. – It is said that women live longer than men.

Sometimes the term Personal Passive is used in English lessons if the indirect object of an active sentence is to become the subject of the passive sentence.

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE FOR PRESENT/FUTURE MODALS

CAN, MAY, MIGHT, SHOULD, MUST, OUGHT TO

Auxiliary verb in passive voice : be

Active voice: CAN
She can play a violin.
She cannot play a violin.
Can she play a violin?

Passive voice: CAN BE
A violin can be played by her.
A violin cannot be played by her.
Can a violin be played by her?

Active voice: MAY
I may buy the computer.
I may not buy the computer.
May I buy the computer?

Passive voice: MAY BE
The computer may be bought by me.
The computer may not be bought by me.
May the computer be bought by me?

Active voice: MIGHT
Guests might play chess.
Guests might not play chess.

Passive voice: MIGHT BE
Chess might be played by guests.
Chess might not be played guests.

Active voice: SHOULD
Students should study all lessons.
Students should not study all lessons.
Should students study all lessons?

Passive voice: SHOULD BE
All lessons should be studied by students.
All lessons should not be studied by students.
Should all lessons be studied by students?

Active voice: MUST
You must learn the test-taking strategies.
You must not learn the test-taking strategies.

Passive voice: MUST BE
Test-taking strategies must be learnt by you.
Test-taking strategies must not be learned by you.

Active voice: OUGHT TO
They ought to take the examination.

Passive voice: OUGHT TO BE
The examination ought to be taken by them.

Active and Passive Voice for past modals : MAY HAVE, MIGHT HAVE, SHOULD HAVE, MUST HAVE, OUGHT TO HAVE

Auxiliary verb in passive voice: been

  • The places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in passive voice.
  • 3rd form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb) in passive voice.
  • To change sentences having past modal into passive voice, auxiliary verb “been” is added after modal in sentence

Active voice: MAY HAVE
You may have availed the opportunity.
You may not have availed the opportunity.

Passive voice: MAY HAVE BEEN
The opportunity may have been availed by you.
The opportunity may not have been availed by you.

Active voice: MIGHT HAVE
He might have eaten meal.
He might not have eaten meal.

Passive voice: MIGHT HAVE BEEN
Meal might have been eaten by him.
Meal might not have been eaten by him.

Active voice: SHOULD HAVE
You should have studied the book.
You should not have studied the book.

Passive voice: SHOULD HAVE BEEN
The book should have been studied by you.
The book should have not been studied by you.

Active voice: MUST HAVE
He must have started job.
He must not have started job.

Passive voice: MUST HAVE BEEN
Job must have been started by you.
Job must not have been started by you.

Active voice: OUGHT TO HAVE
You ought to have helped him.

Passive voice: OUGHT TO HAVE BEEN
He ought to have been helped by you.

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

Transitive verbs are action verbs that have an object to receive that action.

Transitive verbs can be in active or passive voice. Transitive verbs in active voice are the verbs which are followed by the direct objects. A transitive verbs needs object to express full meaning.

Example: The boy kicked the ball.

(The subject is the actor who does the action and the direct object is the receiver of the action.)

Meanwhile, Transitive passive verbs have the subject receiving the action.

Examples: The ball was kicked by the boy. The ball was kicked hard.

(The verbs in the transitive passive voice always have “is, am, are, was, were, be, being, or been” as auxiliaries.)

Intransitive verbs are action verbs but unlike transitive verbs, they do not have an object receiving the action.

Example : I cried. – The book fell.

Examples: The bell rang suddenly. The girl knitted all evening.

(There is no receiver of the action.) They were here. (no action or predicate nominative or predicate adjective).

Intransitive verb cannot be changed into passive voice. The sentences which have intransitive verbs cannot be changed into passive voice. The reason behind that statement is that there is no object in the sentences and we all know that without objects we cannot change the sentences to passive voice.

List of Common Intransitive Verbs :

adapt

agree

arrive

become

belong

collapse

cost

depend

die

emerge

exist

fly

come

lie

sneeze

sit

go

happen

laugh

occur

rise

sit

sleep

stay

swim

jump

explode

There are exercise for Active and Passive Lesson

  1. He opens the door.
  2. We set the table
  3. She pays a lot of money.
  4. I draw a picture.
  5. They wear blue shoes
  6. They don’t help you.
  7. He doesn’t open the book.
  8. You do not write the letter
  9. Does your mum pick you up?
  10. Does the police officer catch the thief?
  11. The hostess received us.
  12. The boy’s work pleased the teacher.
  13. The fire damaged the building.
  14. Everyone will blame us.
  15. The wind blew down the trees.

Answer :

  1. The door is opened by him
  2. The table is set by us.
  3. A lot of money is paid by her.
  4. A picture is drawn by me.
  5. Blue shoes are worn by them
  6. You are not helped by them.
  7. The book is not opened by him.
  8. The letter is not written by you.
  9. Are you picked up by your mum?
  10. Is the thief caught by the police officer?
  11. We were received by the hostess.
  12. The teacher was pleased with the boy’s work.
  13. The building was damaged by the fire.
  14. We will be blamed by everyone.
  15. The trees were blown down by the wind.

Sources : Retrieve on Monday, 19 OKTOBER 2015

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/passive/exercises?simple-present

http://www.englishpractice.com/grammar/active-passive-voice-exercise-3/

https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/passive

http://www.cws.illinois.edu/workshop/writers/activevoice/

http://www.k12reader.com/term/transitive-and-intransitive-verbs/

http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/activepassive.html

https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/539/01/

https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/539/

http://cdac.olabs.co.in/?sub=84&brch=23&sim=186&cnt=1

http://www.studyandexam.com/passive-voice-for-intransitive-verb.html

http://www.studyandexam.com/passive-voice-for-modal.html

http://www.grammarbank.com/transitive-intransitive-verbs.html

TOURISM ANALYSIS ASPECT OF NAMI ISLANDS, South Korea

TOURISM

ANALYSIS ASPECT OF NAMI ISLANDS, South Korea

 GUNDAR

CREATE BY :

VINNY AULIA

17612600

3 SA 05

FACULTY OF LETTER

GUNADARMA UNIVERSITY

2015

History of Nami Islands

NAMI ISLAND

5

Namiseom is a tiny half-moon shaped island located in Chuncheon, Gangwon Province, about 60 km east of Seoul. It was formed in 1944 with the flooding of the land cause by the construction of the Cheongpyeong Dam was built. The island is named after General Nami, who died at the age of 27/28 after being falsely accused of treason during the reign of King Sejo, the seventh king of the Joseon Dynasty.The general was a young courageous soldier during the Joseon Dynasty who suppressed a riot led by Lee Shi-Ae. Commended for his actions he was promoted to Byeongjopanseo (Minister of National Defense).

Nami Island is an oasis for culture and leisure in peaceful harmony with humanity and nature. After a five-minute ferry ride, guests meet a forest of verdant trees holding up the sky and open grassy areas where ostriches, rabbits, squirrels, chipmunks, ducks and peacocks warmly welcome visitors in the midst of wild flowers. On Nami Island, artists from all over the world show-off their talents and share the sense of peace of mind the island creates. The island is the site of Nami Island International Children’s Book Festival (NAMBOOK) and other cultural events that take place every weekend, making Nami one of the main cultural and artistic tourist attractions in Korea. Nami is home to several galleries and is the site of the Song Museum, which also houses a collection of international ethnic musical instruments. There are indoor and outdoor stages, facilities for seminars and workshops in addition to a 46-room modern hotel and 10 cottages. Nami Island is dedicated to improving the mental and physical well being of children throughout the world. As such, it serves as the main sponsor of the Hans Christian Andersen Award and contributes regularly to UNICEF. Naminara is unique in other ways, also. At night, all the lights are turned off on the island so that visitors can harmonize with nature under the light of the moon and stars. Most of wood and bottles generated by visitors to the island are recycled and re-used. Nami has a very open hiring and retirement policy so people can work until they are 80 years old if they wish.

A special feature of Namiseom Island is that there are no telephone poles. This is because all electric wires were built underground to keep the natural feeling of the landscape. The complex is 553,560 square yards with chestnut trees and poplar trees around the isle. In the middle of the isle, there is a grass field about 316,320 square yards. It is composed of education and training facilities, camping sites, swimming pools and water-sports facilities for motorboats and water skiing. There is also a theme park with merry-go-rounds, a shooting range, roller skating rink, and there are lodging facilities such as resort villas and bungalows.

7 1Naminara_Republic_Flag

In 2006, the island declared its cultural and artistic tourist attractions in Korea, and declared its cultural independence and was reborn as Naminara Republic. It has its own national flag, anthem, currency, passport and phone cards, stamps, orthography and even a certification of citizenship, temporary passport holders pay 15,000 won for a one-year citizenship. A passport issued from Naminara is required to enter the Namisum.

 

How to get to Namiseom ?

Getting There:
It takes about two hours to get to Namisun by car from Seoul (about 60 km).
Car/using Navigation Address Search: Gyeonggi-do, Gapyeong-gun, Gapyeong-eup, Daljeon-ri 144-1
Name Search: Nami Island (or Namisum) Ticket Office/Nami Island Dock, Parking
Shuttle Buses: There are two direct shuttle buses – one leaves from Insadong in Seouland the other from Jamsil Station.
Insa-dong: The shuttle leaves at 9:30AM from the tourist bust stop next to Tapgol Park (aka Pagoda Park) and returns to Seoul at 16:00 from Nami Island (parking lot in front of ticket office)
Jamsil: The shuttle leaves at 9:30AM from Jamsil station (Stops 216 and 814, Exit 4 – walk straight to Lotte Mart on the left side; bus stop is in front of Lotte Mart)
Round trip 15.000krw/Adult(7.500/one-way),13.000krw/Child(6.500/ond-way)
Return ticket+Entrance+ferry 23.000krw/adult, 17.000krw/child
Reservation: Nami Island Seoul Center 02-753-1247
Chuncheon Nami Tourist Information Center 031-580-8151~2

tapgol park
Bus*
From East Seoul Terminal (www.ti21.co.kr) 02-446-8000 (1h 20m)
From Sangbong Terminal  02-323-5885 (1h20m)
Fom Chuncheon Bus Terminal(www.chterminal.co.kr) 033-241-0285 (25m)
From Gapyeong Bus Terminal 031-582-2308

Myeongdong to Gangbyeon
Train
Every 15 minutes from Cheongryang-ri Station/Seongbuk Station. One way fare is ~W4000.
Train to South Chuncheon -get off at Gapyeong Station -Nami Island (by taxi or bus)
Cheongryang ri Station/Seongbuk Station (www.korail.com) 1544-7788 / 1588-7788
Gapyeong Station 031-581-2855

hh

Price Duration Inclusion
38,000 won 1 min 20 sec (940m) * Entrance fee to Nami Island
* Ferry fare for going back

Package_Nami_Island_06

Time Interval Remarks
07:30 ~ 09:00 Every 30 minutes First ferry: From Gapyong 07:30 / From Nami 07:35
09:00 ~ 18:00 Every 10~20 minutes
18:00 ~ 21:40 Every 39 minutes Last ferry: From Gapyong 21:40 / From Nami 21:45

* The ferry ride takes approximately 5 to 6 minutes.

What time we can visit Nami Islands?

Nami Islands open all year, but we recommended time of visit on May, July, August, October and early November on 7:30 a.m. ~ 9:30 p.m.

 

How much cost for admission ?

For April – November :

  • Foreign nationals W8,000 (entrance fee W5000 + round trip ferry W3,000 /tax included)
  • Korean nationals W10,000 / Children (3-13 y-o-a) W4,000
  • After 7PM April-November: W4,000

For December – March and after 6PM: W4000 (entrance fee W3,000  + round trip ferry W3,000/tax included)

  • Children W3,000

Info: Website or 02-1330 (KTO’s helpline).
Reservations: 02-753-1247

 

 

What the most famous place at Nami Islands?

ttu

1. UnChi Garden

Nami Island has been accredited 14th Unicef Child-Friendly Park in the world and first in Korea, based on the Convention on the Right of the Child (CRC) that encompasses the proposition ‘Child is not only an object needed protection, but a principal that possesses fundamental rights and dignity’. In the progress of implementing provisions of CRC, Nami Island has founded a special creative playground for children composed of safe and joyful rides right next to the Unicef Hall.
The name of this playground is Un-chi (Unicef+Child) Park, which is a compound word of Unicef and Child, and also means ‘A place where children gathering as cloud’, derived from the meaning of its Chinese character.

 tt 4index   images

  1. Winter Sonata Photo Galleries 

Since Winter Sonata take a place at Nami Islands, it become famous place for couple and family who come to visit. Winter Sonata Photo Gallery, inside the gallery contain all the photos of the winter sonata drama in 2002. But Nami Islands has the Best destination which you must visit when you around Nami Islands.

3 hj nami

  1. Metasequoia Footpath

It was one of the main filming locations of the Korean Broadcasting System 2002 television drama series Winter Sonata.

 

All of them is the most famous place at Nami island, Is there another place or facilities that we can visit ? Do you have a specification what kind of the place or the facilities and for the cost ?

Yes.. there is much of place and facilities that we can visit such as :

  1. Bike Centre

Let’s be just like the stars of “Winter Sonata” and go bike riding!

ii

At the west side of the Sonata Center in the main square,
you can find the Nami Line Bike Center where you can rent bicycles.

Type Price Time
1 person 3,000 won
5,000 won
30min
1 hour
2 persons 6,000 won
10,000 won
30 min
1 hour
4 persons 10,000 won 30min
  1. Sky Bike

 ft

Operation Time Price Remarks
09:00 ~ 18:00 3,000won (Adult)
2,000won (~13 years old)
one-way

Another lane has been unveiled on Nami Island.
But interestingly this time the lane is not laid on the ground, but in the air!
Enjoy riding bicycle with your family and lover on the 5m tall lane from the ground,
under the clear blue sky with the cozy landscape of the island.

* The child under the age of 6 should be accompanied by an adult.

  1. Nami Car

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Nami cars are beautifully designed by an Italian artisan and produced in Korea by Handmade. Enjoy a ride on the Namycar track which is decorated with all sorts of miniature traffic signs. Nami car is an educational tool for kids and brings childhood memories back to adults.

Type Price Time
1 person 10,000 won 30min

* Not available during inclement weather.
* Equipped with safety devices; speed control (under 4km/h), obstacle ahead detective sensor.
* A child under the age of 6 should be accompanied by an adult; the price charged is for 1 person.

  1. The Water Stage

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Part of Hotel Junggwanru, the Water Stage an outdoor swimming pool in the forest, was built in 2005 for the “YoPeFe: International Young People’s Muse Festival.” It is used as a stage for festivals, a rest area in summer, a romantic spot in spring as well as Andersen Hall’s poolside restaurant. All are invited to spend time in a pool surrounded by nature.

10:00 ~ 18:00
2013.07.13~2013.08.18
Type Price
Entrance Fee Adult 4,000 won
Child (~5 years old) 2,000 won
Rental Swim Suit 5,000 won
Swim Cap 3,000 won
Round Tube 5,000 won
Large Tube 10,000 won
Sale Sports towel 4,000 won
Drink, Snack, Ice-cream
Activity Water Walking Ball 5,000 won (5 min)
Bumper Boat 5,000 won (5 min)

*Swim suits and caps must be worn. * Not allowed to wear T-shirt and pants in the pool & bring food inside the Water Stage. * The showers are free for users of the Water Stage but you must bring your own soap, shampoo, etc.

And the last is.. Herb World

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Enjoy Nami herbal teas and feel closer to nature.

* Products: herb tea, accessories made from herbs
* Open : 10:00 ~ 18:00

Lanes on Nami Islands this destination Include pleasure tourism. Because at the Lanes on Nami Islands you can feel enjoy and romantic sensation. And in here The lanes on Nami islands was the Best Located on Winter Sonata Korean Drama. This lanes divided based on kinds of trees, they are :

  • Metasequoia Lane

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Also known as living fossils, metasequoia trees were transplanted on Nami Island from the College of Agriculture, Seoul National University, in 1977. By growing tall very fast, these trees made a luxuriant path to walk through and became very popular after being filmed in the famous TV Drama, ‘Winter Sonata.’ With its elegant, exotic, and magnificent appearance, Metasequoia Lane has turned out to be the most popular, and also the symbolic site on Nami Island.

  • Ginko Tree Lane / Cherry Tree Lane

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From Joongangwangjang (Central Plaza) towards the south, there is Ginko Tree Lane for about 80 meters in length. In autumn, all covered with beautiful yellow leaves, this lane is one of the most beautiful sites for visitors to take pictures. There is also Riverside Lover’s Gingko Tree Lane located nearby the southeastern shore and Changgyeongwon Garden, which is especially popular for lovers. Cherry Tree Lane lies in front of Water Stage Swimming Pool, and is particularly beautiful in spring, when there is full of cherry blossoms everywhere.

  • White Pine Tree Lanes

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  • White Birch Lane / Tulip Tree Lane

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Ponds On the Nami Islands

There used to be only one pond on Nami Island, in front of the Tomb of General Nami. In 2001, it was named YonJi Pond, the gift to lovers, and there was another GonJi Pond made in front of Cho-ok House for our insect community to enjoy. Afterwards, several ponds were also made in every corner of the Island: Meta Pond across the Metasequoia Lane to keep yellow gingko leaves, MongyonJi Pond on the east side of Unicef Gur to wish sweet dreams, YonJi Pond (Pond with Lotus) in front of Anderson Hall where the painting of the lotus is hidden behind the board, instead of real lotus, Boodle Pond made on sunken land in a form of the Island, Jeonggwanbaekryeonji Pond in front of the hotel reception which beautifully mirrors the Hotel Jeonggwanru with white lotus and Yuyeongji Pond behind the hotel where the branch of willow trees meet water.

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SEJARAH JURNALISTIK DI DUNIA DAN SEJARAH JURNALISTIK DI INDONESIA

SEJARAH JURNALISTIK DI DUNIA

Jurnalistik adalah proses penulisan berita dan penyebaran berita pada masyarakat di media online maupun di media cetak. Kata jurnalistik sendiri berasal dari bahasa Romawi “diurna”.
• Sejarah Jurnalistik pada zaman Romawi Kuno
Perkembangan Jurnalistik pada zaman Romawi Kuno dimulai pada masa kekuasaan Julius Caesar (100-44SM). Pada masa itu terdapat papan pengunguman seperti berita publik, catatan proses dan keputusan hukum digunakan untuk menyebarkan informasi kepada masyarakat dan informasi yang lainnya termasuk kelahiran, pernikahan dan kematian oarang yang memiliki kasta yang tinggi Romawi. Acta diurna sendiri dikelilingi ukiran batu.
Acta Diurna sendiri berasal dari bahasa latin yaitu Diurnal yang berarti harian. Sehingga Acta diurna adalah berita harian yang. Bisa dibilang bahwa Acta Diurna adalah cikal bakal perkembangan Jurnalistik di Dunia dan Julius Caesar disebut sebagai “Bapa Pers Dunia”. Namun ternyata sebelum adanya Acta diurna pada awal kerajaan Romawi raja Imam Agung telah memerintahkan pencatatan setiap kejadian penting pada “Annals” yaitu papan tulis yang digantung di beranda rumah, jadi setiap orang yang melewati rumah akan membaca catatan itu dan mengetahui informasi yang ada dalam “Annals” tersebut.
Pada Masa Julius Caesar “Acta Diurna” juga digunakan untuk memberitahu masyarajat hasil sidang dan keputusan keputusan yang diambil dalam senat. Hasil sidang itu akan dipajang di pusat kota yang disebut “Forum Romanium”. Yang membedakan proses jurnalistik saat itu dan saat ini yaitu. Saat adanya Acta Diurna justru para narasumber yang akan datang untuk memberikan informasi yang akan dipasang di Acte Diurna. Beda pada saat ini dimana para jurnalis yang berlomba untuk mencari narasumber untuk mendapatkan suatu berita. Namun karna makin banyak narasumber yang memberikan informasi pada Acte Diurna, seolah para pencatat Acte Diurna yang disebut Diurnarii berlomba untuk mendapatkan berita mulai dari keliling kota Roma sampai luar kota Roma. Namun perkembangan Jurnalistik di Romawi sempat berhenti saat kerajaan Romawi runtuh dan Eropa mulai masuk dalam “Dark Ages”.

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*acta diurna

• Penemuan Kertas

Cina
Sebelum ditemukan nya kertas untuk menulis, pada awalnya orang Mesir kuno menggunakan batang pohon, kulit hewan, piringan dan beragam material untuk mencatat sesuatu. Dan pada akhirnya Cina pada menemukan cara bagaimana membuat kertas, orang orang Cina terinspirasi dari proses penggulungan sutra dan orang cina menemukan bahan untuk membuat kertas yang disebut “bo”. Bo sendiri terbuat dari sutra yang sangat jarang ditemukan maka pada awal pembuatan nya kertas sendiri merupakan barang langka yang jarang dibuat. Pada 105 AD pada masa Dinasti Han pejabat Cina Cai lun telah menemukan kertas yang terbuat dari kulit murbei, kain. Kertas ini cukup mudah dibuat, ringan dan cocok untuk digunakan dengan kuas. Cara pembuatan kertas ala Cai Lun ini dengan merendam kulit murbei dan dipukul pukul sehingga serat nya lepas, direndam juga kain bekasi, jala ikan lalu setelah itu ditekan hingga tipis dan dijemur. Lalu jadilah kertas yang pasti mutu nya belum sebagus sekarang. Pada tahun 105 Cai Lun pernah menulis catatan pembuatan kertas itu dengan menggunakan kertas yang ia buat pada Kaisar Han. Dari penemuan itu akhirnya tersebar ke negara Asia yang lainnya seperti Jepang dan Korea.
Pada tahun 751 saat pasukan Tang kalah perang dengan Arab, orang Arab menangkap orang cina, dari sebagaian orang Cina yang ditangkap mengajarkan orang arab bagaimana cara membuat kertas dan begitulah tersebarnya proses pembuatan kertas di Arab.

Cai Lun

*cai lun
Arab
Pemakaian kertas di Arab bermula pada masa Abbasiyah saat Pasukan Dinasti Han kalah
Pada Arab dalam pertarungan River Talas, dari situ banyak orang cina yang ditangkap dan dijadikan sebagai tawanan perang dan mengajarkan cara pembuatan kertas kepada orang Arab sehingga pada zaman itu mulai bermunculan industri kertas baik di Baghdad maupun Samarkand. Perkembangan kertas di Arab sempat terhenti karna tidak ada kulit pohon murbei di negeri Arab. Akhirnya orang Arab pun mencari cara untuk membuat kertas selain menggunakan kulit murbei yaitu dengan menggunakkan kulit pohon linen. Cara pembuatan nya yaitu dengan mengeringkan lembaran kulit pohon Linen di bambu dan menambahkan pemutih agar mempermudah pemotongan kulit pohon linen. Setelah itu digunakna palu besar untuk menggiling bahan yang akan dihaluskan. Namun setelah itu orang Arab menggunakan proses pemotongan kertas dengan kanji gandum yang dapat menghasilkan permukaan kertas yang cocok untuk ditulis dengan tinta.

Barat
Bangsa barat baru mengenal kertas beberapa ratus tahun setelah orang Arab menggunakan. Pabrrik kertas pertama di Eropa di bangun pada 1276 M di Italia. Bangsa barat mempelajari cara membuat kertas setelah kristen menginvasi Spanyol islam. Setelah kejayaan Islam reduo, Akhirnya Barat mendominasi Industri kertas. Dokumen kertas tertua yaitu Mozarab Misa dari abad ke 11, kertas dibuat dengan menggunakan kulit pohon linen

Penemuan Mesin Cetak
Walaupun kertas pertama kali ditemukan cara pembuatan di Cina namun proses penemuan mesin cetak pertama kali ditemukan oleh bangsa barat Johann Gutenberg (1400-1468). Terdapat 4 komponen yang dikembangkan Gutenburg yaitu pembuatan huruf cetak bergerak yang dapat menjaga huruf- huruf tersebut tetap ada di posisinya, penggunaan jenis tinta dan bahan yang cocok. Penggunaan bahan yang digunakan Gutenburg adalah kertas itu adalah satu satunya bahan yang dapat digunakan dalam mesin cetak.

MESIN CETAK GUTTENBERG
Surat Kabar Jerman
Keberadaan mesin cetak memicu barat untuk membuat surat kabar pertamanya yang dapat memuat banyak informasi. Pada tahun 1609 diterbitkan prototipe pertama surat kabar eropa yang rutin terbit di Bremen, Jerman bernama Aviso di Wolfenbuttel dan Relation. Setelah terbitnya surat kabar tersebut mulai bermunculan lah surat-surat kabar di berbagai negara.

Surat Kabar Inggris
Pada tahun 1690 surat kabar “ public Occurrenses both Foreign and Domestic” diterbitkan oleh Benjamin Harris seseorang berkebangsaan inggris namun baru sekali diberitakan surat kabar tersebut langsung dicabut penyebaran nya karna tidak sesuai dengan visi misi pemerintah saat itu.

Pulitizer Awards
Pulitizer Awards adalah salah satu penghargaan tertinggi dalam bidang jurnalisme di Amerika Serikat. Penghargaan pulitizer awards pertama kali diberikan pada tanggal 4 juni 1917. Penghargaan ini diberikan dalam berbagai macam kategori yang berhubungan dengan jurnalisme.
Yellow Jurnalism adalah jurnalisme kuning berasal dari nama tokoh komik berwarna Hogan Alley. Komik ini menggambarkan kehidupan penghuni rumah petak di new york dengan tokoh kelinci yang selalu tersenyum. Maksud dari penggambaran komik ini dengan yellow journalism adalah pada saat itu banyak surat kabar menggunakan berbagai cara untuk meningkatkan pembaca dengan tidak mematuhi kaidah jurnalistik dan kode etik yang berlaku dengan menggunakan kata kata yang vulgar.

Sejarah jurnalistik di mulai pada masa Romawi kuno, pada masa pemerintahan Julius Caesar (100-44 SM). Pada waktu itu, ada acta diurna berisi hasil uji coba semua, peraturan baru, keputusan senat dan informasi penting lainnya yang dipasang di pusat kota yang disebut Stadion Romawi atau “Forum Romanum”.

Surat kabar pertama diterbitkan di Cina pada tahun 911, Pau Kin. Koran ini dimiliki oleh pemerintah ketika masa Kaisar Quang Soo. Tidak berbeda dalam Age of Caesar, Kin Pau mengandung berita keputusan, pertimbangan dan informasi lain dari Istana. Pindah ke Jerman, tahun 1609, penerbitan surat kabar pertama bernama Avisa Relation Order Zeitung. Pada 1618, surat kabar tertua di Belanda bernama Coyrante uytItalien en Duytschland. Surat kabar pertama di Inggris diterbitkan pada 1662 bernama Oxford Gazette (later the London) dan diterbitkan terus menerus sejak pertama kali muncul. Surat kabar pertama di Perancis, the Gazette de France, didirikan pada tahun 1632 oleh raja Theophrastus Renaudot (1.586-1.653), dengan perlindungan Louis XIII. Semua surat kabar yang terkena sensor prepublication, dan menjabat sebagai instrumen propaganda untuk monarki.

Industri surat kabar mulai menunjukkan kemajuan yang luar biasa ketika budaya membaca di masyarakat semakin meluas. Terlebih ketika memasuki masa Revolusi Industri, di mana industri surat kabar diuntungkan dengan adanya mesin cetak tenaga uap, yang bisa meningkatkan kinerja untuk memenuhi permintaan publik akan berita.

Pada pertengahan 1800-an bisnis berita mulai berkembang. Organisasi kantor berita yang berfungsi mengumpulkan berbagai berita dan tulisan didistribusikan ke berbagai penerbit surat kabar dan majalah. Pasalnya, para pengusaha surat kabar dapat lebih menghemat pengeluarannya dengan berlangganan berita kepada kantor-kantor berita itu daripada harus membayar wartawan untuk pergi atau ditempatkan di berbagai wilayah. Kantor berita yang masih beroperasi hingga hari ini antara lain Associated Press (AS), Reuters (Inggris), dan Agence-France Presse (Prancis).

Tahun 1800-an juga ditandai dengan munculnya istilah Yellow Journalism (jurnalisme kuning), sebuah istilah untuk “pertempuran headline” antara dua koran besar di Kota New York. Satu dimiliki oleh Joseph Pulitzer dan satu lagi dimiliki oleh William Randolph Hearst. Ciri khas jurnalisme kuning adalah pemberitaannya yang bombastis, sensasional, dan pemuatan judul utama yang menarik perhatian publik. Tujuannya hanya satu “meningkatkan penjualan!”.
Jurnalisme kuning tidak bertahan lama, seiring dengan munculnya kesadaran jurnalisme sebagai profesi.
Organisasi profesi wartawan pertama kali didirikan di Inggris pada 1883, yang diikuti oleh wartawan di negara-negara lain pada masa berikutnya. Kursus-kursus jurnalisme pun mulai banyak diselenggarakan di berbagai universitas, yang kemudian melahirkan konsep-konsep seperti pemberitaan yang tidak bias dan dapat dipertanggungjawabkan, sebagai standar kualitas bagi jurnalisme professional.

SEJARAH MEDIA CETAK

Media Massa pada hakikatnya adalah alat atau perantara komunikasi yang digunakan untuk menyampaikan pesan dari sumber berita kepada khalayak banyak. Media massa yang paling pertama dibuat didunia adalah Media Massa Cetak. Media massa cetak telah ada sejak lebih dari 200 tahun yang lalu, pertama diterbitkan pada abad ke-17 di Eropa dengan batuan mesin cetak yang dibuat oleh Johann Gutenberg yang selanjutnya berkembang hingga di Indonesia

Sejarah Media Cetak di Indonesia di 6 Zaman:

  1. Zaman Belanda

Media massa cetak di Indonesia telah ada sejak tahun 1744. Telah dilakukan percobaan pertama untuk menerbitkan media massa dengan diterbitkannya surat kabar pertama pada masa pemerintahan Gubernur Jenderal Van Imhoff dengan nama Bataviasche Nouvelles tetapi hanya 2 tahun. Pada tahun 1828 diterbitkanlah Javasche Courant di Jakarta yang memuat berita-berita resmi pemerintahan, berita lelang dan berita kutipan dari harian-harian di Eropa. Mesin cetak pertama di Indonesia juga datang melalui Batavia (Jakarta) melalui seorang Nederland bernama W. Bruining dari Rotterdam yang kemudian menerbitkan surat kabar bernama Het Bataviasche Advertantie Blad yang memuat iklan-iklan dan berita-berita umum yang dikutip dari penerbitan resmi di Nederland (Staatscourant).Di Surabaya sendiri pada periode ini telah terbit Soerabajasch Advertantiebland yang kemudian berganti menjadi Soerabajasch Niews en Advertantiebland. Sedang di Semarang terbit Semarangsche Advertetiebland dan De Semarangsche Courant. Secara umum serat kabar-surat kabar yang muncul saat itu tidak mempunyai arti secara politis karena cenderung pada iklan dari segi konten. Tirasnya tidak lebih dari 1000-1200 eksemplar tiap harinya. Setiap surat kabar yang beredar harulah melalui penyaringan oleh pihak pemerintahan Gubernur Jenderal di Bogor. Tidak hanya itu, surat kabar Belandapun terbit di daerah Sumatera dan Sulawesi. Di Padang terbit Soematra Courant, Padang Handeslsbland dan Bentara Melajoe. Di Makasar (Ujung Pandang) terbit Celebes Courant dan Makassarsch Handelsbland.Pada tahun 1885 di seluruh daerah yang dikuasai Belanda telah terbit sekitar 16 surat kabar dalam bahasa Belanda dan 12 surat kabar dalam bahasa Melayu seperti, Bintang Barat, Hindia-Nederland, Dinihari, Bintang Djohar (terbit di Bogor), Selompret Melayu dan Tjahaja Moelia, Pemberitaan Bahroe (Surabaya) dan surat kabar berbahasa Jawa, Bromatani yang terbit di Solo.

  1. Zaman Jepang

Saat penjajah berganti dan Jepang memasuki Indonesia, surat kabar-surat kabar yang beredar di Indonesia diambil alih secara pelan-pelan Beberapa surat kabar disatukan dengan alasan penghematan namun yang sebenarnya adalah agar pemerintah Jepang memperketat pengawasan terhadat isi surat kabar. Kantor Berita Antara diambil alih dan diubah menjadi kantor berita Yashima dengan berpusat di Domei, Jepang. Konten surat kabar dimanfaatkan sebagai alat propaganda untuk memuji-muji pemerintahan Jepang. Wartawan Indonesia saat itu bekerja sebagai pegawai sedang yang mempunyai kedudukan tinggi adalah orang-orang yang sengaja didatangkan dari Jepang. Salah satu surat kabar yang terbit pada masa ini adalah Tjahaja (ejaan baru Cahaya). Surat kabar ini sudah menggunakan Bahasa Indonesia dan penerbit berada di kotaBandung. Surat kabar ini terbit di Indonesia namun berisikan berita tentang segala kondisi yang terjadi di Jepang. Para pemimpinnya di antaranya adalah Oto Iskandar Dinata, R. Bratanata, dan Mohamad Kurdi. Pada tampilan tampak bahwa surat kabar tersebut bertuliskan tanggal 24 Shichigatsu 2604, yang pada penanggalan masehi sama dengan tanggal 24 Juli 1944.

  1. Zaman Orde Lama

Setelah dikeluarkannya dekrit presiden tanggal 5 Juli 1959 oleh presiden Soekarno, terdapat larangan terhadap kegiatan politik termasuk pers. Persyaratan untuk mendapat Surat Izin Terbit dan Surat Izin Cetak diperketat yang kemudian situasi ini dimanfaatkan oleh Partai Komunis Indonesia untuk melakukan slowdown atau mogok secara halus oleh para buruh dan pegawai surat kabar. Karyawan pada bagian setting melambatkan pekerjaannya yang membuat banyak kolom surat kabar tidak terisi menjelang batas waktu cetak (deadline). Pada akhirnya kolom tersebut diisi iklan gratis. Hal ini menimpa surat kabar Soerabaja Post dan Harian Pedoman di Jakarta. Pada periode ini banyak terjadi kasus antara surat kabar pro PKI dan anti PKI.

  1. Zaman Kemerdekaan

pemerintah Jepang menggunakan surat kabar sebagai alat propaganda pencitraan pemerintah, Indonesiapun melakukan hal yang sama untuk melakukan perlawanan dalam hal sabotase komunikasi. Edi Soeradi melakukan propaganda agar rakyat berdatangan pada Rapat Raksasa Ikada pada tanggal 19 September 1945 untuk mendengarkan pidato Bung Karno. Dalam perjalanannya, Berita Indonesia (BI) berulang kali mengalami pembredelan dimana selama pembredelan tersebut para pegawai kemudian ditampung oleh surat kabar Merdeka yang didirikan oleh B.M. Diah. Surat kabar perjuangan lainnya adalah Harian Rakyat dengan pemimpin redaksi Samsudin Sutan Makmr dan Rinto Alwi dimana surat kabar tersebut menampilkan “pojok” dan “Bang Golok” sebagai artikel. Surat kabar lainnya yan terbit pada masa ini adalah Soeara Indonesia, Pedoman Harian yang berubah menjadi Soeara Merdeka (Bandung), Kedaulatan Rakyat (Bukittinggi), Demokrasi (Padang) dan Oetoesan Soematra (Padang).

  1. Zaman Orde Baru

Pada masa orde baru sangat menekankan pentingnya pemahaman tentang pers pancasila yang terdapat dalam rumusan dewan pers pada Desember 1984. Pada saat itu pers dimata negara memiliki peranan yang penting sebagai pendorong kesatuan nasionaal, walau saat itu pemerintah tidak menjamin dengan tegas kebebasan pers di Indonesia, hal ini terbukti dengan kontrol ketat pemerintah denan mendirikan dewan Pers dan PWI. Ada 3 hal yang dipakai oleh pers pada masa orde baru yaitu Eufimisme, Jurnalisme rekaman dan jurnalisme Amplop. Pada periode ini, surat kabar yang dipaksa untuk berafiliasi kembali mendapatkan pribadi awalnya, seperti Kedaulatan Rakyat yang pada zaman orde lama harus berganti menjadi Dwikora. Hal ini juga terjadi pada Pikiran Rakyat di Bandung. Bahkan pers kampuspun mulai aktif kembali. Namun dibalik itu semua, pengawasan dan pengekangan pada pers terutama dalam hal konten tetap diberlakukan. Pemberitaan yang dianggap merugikan pemerintah harus dibredel dan dihukum dengan dilakukan pencabutan SIUP seperti yang terjadi pada Sinar Harapan, tabloid Monitor dan Detik serta majalah Tempo dan Editor. Pers lagi-lagi dibayangi dalam kekuasaan pemerintah yang cenderung memborgol kebebasan pers dalam membuat berita serta menghilangkan fungsi pers sebagai kontrol sosial terhadap kinerja pemerintah. Pembredalanpun marak pada periode ini.

  1. Zaman Reformasi

Suatu pencerahan datang kepada kebebasan pers, setelah runtuhnya rezim Soeharto pada tahun 1998. Pada saat itu rakyat menginginkan adanya reformasi pada segala bidang baik ekonomi, sosial, budaya yang pada masa orde baru terbelenggu. Tumbuhnya pers pada masa reformasi merupakan hal yang menguntungkan bagi masyarakat. Kehadiran pers saat ini dianggap sudah mampu mengisi kekosongan ruang publik yang menjadi celah antara penguasa dan rakyat. Dalam kerangka ini, pers telah memainkan peran sentral dengan memasok dan menyebarluaskan informasi yang diperluaskan untuk penentuan sikap, dan memfasilitasi pembentukan opini publik dalam rangka mencapai konsensus bersama atau mengontrol kekuasaan penyelenggara negara. Selama ini telah dimainkan dengan baik oleh pers Indonesia. Setidaknya, antusias responden terhadap peran pers dalam mendorong pembentukan opini publik yang berkaitan dengan persoalan-persoalan bangsa selama ini mencerminkan keberhasilan tersebut. tahun 1998, pers Indonesia mengalami perubahan yang luar biasa dalam mengekspresikan kebebasan. Fenomena itu ditandai dengan munculnya media-media baru cetak dan elektronik dengan berbagai kemasan dan segmen. Keberanian pers dalam mengkritik penguasa juga menjadi ciri baru pers Indonesia.

Pers yang bebas merupakan salah satu komponen yang paling esensial dari masyarakat yang demokratis, sebagai prasyarat bagi perkembangan sosial dan ekonomi yang baik. Hal yang pertama dan utama, perlu dijaga jangan sampai muncul ada tirani media terhadap publik. Sampai pada konteks ini, publik harus tetap mendapatkan informasi yang benar, dan bukan benar sekadar menurut media. Pers diharapkan memberikan berita harus dengan se-objektif mungkin, hal ini berguna agar tidak terjadi ketimpangan antara rakyat dengan pemimpinnya mengenai informasi tentang jalannya pemerintahan. Pada Orde Reformasi setelah Soehartu mengundurkan diri dari jabatan nya sebagai presiden dan digantikan BJ. Habibie kebebasan jurnalistik bisa dibilang jauh lebih baik dibanding sebelumnya. Dengan adanya penggantian Secara yuridis UUD pokok pers NO.21/1982 pun diganti dengan UU pokok pers NO.40/1999. Dengan undang-undang dan pemerintahan baru, siapapun bisa menerbitkan dan mengelola pers. Tak ada lagi kewajiban hanya menginduk kepada satu organisasi pers. Seperti di tegaskan pasal 9 ayat (1) undang-undang pokok pers NO.40/1999; setiap warga negara indonesia dan negara berhak mendirikan perusahaan pers. Pada pasal yang sama ayat berikutnya (2) ditegaskan lagi, setiap perusahaan pers harus berbentuk badan hukum indonesia.

 

Resolusi saya di tahun 2015 ini…

Resolusi saya di tahun 2015 ini adalah pertama-tama saya ingin menyelesaikan study saya dan mendapatkan gelar sarjana dengan lancar, saya ini meneruskan bisnis kecil-kecilan saya dan usaha ayah saya. Saya ingin menggapai impian saya, sebelum saya menikah. Saya ingin pergi ke korea selatan. Saya ingin menjadi pengusaha tangguh yang dapat bertahan dalam kondisi apapun seperti yang dikatakan oleh dosen saya , saya memutuskan untuk tidak menjadi rumput, dan saya memilih pohon diatas gunung yang tinggi dengan resiko tertimpa musibah paling duluan. Saya ingin menaikkan Haji kedua orangtua saya. Saya ingin membuat taman bacaan untuk anak anak dengan gratis, karena saya tidak ingin anak anak apalagi anak saya sendiri nantinya akan sibuk menonton film yang tidak bermutu, bermain gadget sehingga tidak ada waktu untuk bermain menghabiskan masa kecilnya bersama teman dan keluarganya, saya ingin masa kecil anak anak ditahun mendatang kurang lebih hampir sama dengan masa kecil yang saya rasakan, menyenangkan, edukatif dan berbaur dengan sesama, walaupun zaman globalisasi. Dan yang pasti saya ingin diri saya menjadi lebih baik, bermanfaat untuk sesama, sholehah untuk mendoakan orang tua saya. Saya tidak menuliskan tahun berapa saya ingin get that point, karena akan berjalan dengan sendirinya.